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A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC’s National AIDS Information and Education Program

Abstract

The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency’s media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome.… Read more

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Paid advertising for AIDS prevention–would the ends justify the means?

Abstract

An examination by the Centers for Disease Control and the Research Triangle Institute concluded that “hard-to-reach” populations could be reached with AIDS prevention messages through the broadcast and print media and that a study should be undertaken to assess whether paid placement of these messages could have an effect on HIV-related behaviors.… Read more

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Human immunodeficiency virus transmission from hemophilic men to their heterosexual partners

Lawrence DN, Jason JM, Holman RC, Murphy JJ. In: Heterosexual transmission of AIDS: Alexander, N.J., Gabelnick, H.L. and Spieler, J.M. (Eds.), xiv + 440 pp., illus. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990.

ISBN 0-471-562080-4

DOI: 10.1016/0022-1759(91)90137-5 Human immunodeficiency virus transmission from hemophilic men to their heterosexual partners was last modified: October 19th, 2015 by Lawrence DN, Jason JM, Holman RC, Murphy JJ… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Illness in hemodialysis patients after exposure to chloramine contaminated dialysate

Abstract

In September 1987, patients at an outpatient dialysis center were exposed to chloramine contaminated dialysate when the carbon filter in a recently modified water treatment system failed. Forty-one patients required transfusion to treat the resultant hemolytic anemia. Epidemiologic investigation demonstrated that the mortality rate among dialysis center patients increased during the 5 months after chloramine exposure when compared with the 12 months before chloramine exposure, but no deaths could be attributed to the exposure.… Read more

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Breast-feeding in 1991

Abstract

With increasing urbanization and greater entry of women into the workforce in both

undeveloped

 

and developed countries, it behooves physicians to remember that our encouragement of breast-feeding often conflicts with the practical imperatives faced by many young mothers. We should continue to encourage breast-feeding, but in individual instances this policy can safely be tempered with realism.… Read more

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Nosocomial outbreaks: the Centers for Disease Control’s Hospital Infections Program experience, 1980-1990. Epidemiology Branch, Hospital Infections Program

Abstract

From January 1980 to July 1990, the Hospital Infections Program of the Centers for Disease Control conducted 125 on-site epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial outbreaks. Seventy-seven (62%) were caused by bacterial pathogens, 11 (9%) were caused by fungi, 10 (8%) were caused by viruses, five (4%) were caused by mycobacteria, and 22 (18%) were caused by toxins or other organisms.… Read more

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The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System: plans for the 1990s and beyond

Abstract

The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System is an ongoing collaborative surveillance system among the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and United States hospitals to obtain national data on nosocomial infections. This system provides comparative data for hospitals and can be used to identify changes in infection sites, risk factors, and pathogens, and develop efficient surveillance methods.… Read more

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Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

To perform a valid comparison of rates among surgeons, among hospitals, or across time, surgical wound infection (SWI) rates must account for the variation in patients’ underlying severity of illness and other important risk factors. From January 1987 through December 1990, 44 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System hospitals reported data collected under the detailed option of the surgical patient surveillance component protocol, which includes definitions of eligible patients, operations, and nosocomial infections.… Read more

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Analysis of risk factors for surgical wound infections following vascular surgery

Abstract

Although surgical wound infections (SWI) following implantation of prosthetic devices can be catastrophic and often require removal of the prosthesis, few studies have identified risk factors for these infections. We conducted a prospective multicenter study to identify risk factors for SWI.… Read more

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Serratia marcescens surgical wound infection following breast reconstruction

Abstract

Surgical wound infections due to gram-negative bacilli have been rarely reported following breast implant surgery. From April to November 1989, four patients from one plastic surgeon’s practice developed Serratia marcescens surgical wound infection (SWI) following breast reconstruction procedures with implantation of six expandable mammary implants.… Read more

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Nosocomial infection rates in adult and pediatric intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

To determine which intensive care unit (ICU) infection rate may be best for interhospital and intrahospital comparisons and to assess the influence of invasive devices and type of ICU on infection rates, we analyzed data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.… Read more

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Comparison of rates of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

To determine nosocomial infection (NI) rates among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) that are useful for interhospital comparison, we analyzed data reported in 1986-1990 from 35 hospitals that have level III NICUs and used standard National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance protocols and NI site definitions.… Read more

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Nosocomial infections in elderly patients in the United States, 1986-1990. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

We analyzed 101,479 nosocomial infections in 75,398 adult patients (greater than 15 years) that were reported to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system between 1986 and 1990 by 89 hospitals using the NNIS hospital-wide surveillance component. Overall, 54% of the infections occurred in elderly patients (greater than or equal to 65 years).… Read more

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Secular trends in nosocomial primary bloodstream infections in the United States, 1980-1989. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

More than 25,000 primary bloodstream infections (BSIs) were identified by 124 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System hospitals performing hospital-wide surveillance during the 10-year period 1980-1989. These hospitals reported 6,729 hospital-months of data, during which time approximately 9 million patients were discharged.… Read more

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[CDC definitions for nosocomial infections 1988]

Abstract

Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM

Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena) 1991 Sep;85(17):818-27

PMID: 1659046

[CDC definitions for nosocomial infections 1988] was last modified: September 10th, 1991 by Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM… Read more
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Hepatitis A outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for transmission and evidence of prolonged viral excretion among preterm infants

Abstract

An outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) provided the opportunity to examine the duration of HAV excretion in infants and the mechanisms by which HAV epidemics are propagated in NICUs. The outbreak affected 13 NICU infants (20%), 22 NICU nurses (24%), 8 other staff caring for NICU infants, and 4 household contacts; 2 seropositive infants (primary cases) received blood transfusions from a donor with HAV infection.… Read more

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Microbial growth and endotoxin production in the intravenous anesthetic propofol

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we measured microbial growth and endotoxin production in the intravenous anesthetic propofol using 10 different microbial strains; 6 isolated from outbreak cases and 4 from laboratory stock cultures.

DESIGN: In each trial, endotoxin-free glass tubes containing 10 ml propofol were inoculated with 10(0)-10(3) CFU/ml of the test organism and incubated at 30 degrees C for 72 hours.… Read more

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Use of tap water and disinfection practices in outpatient settings. A survey of otolaryngologists

Abstract

A survey of otolaryngologists belonging to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery was conducted to estimate the frequency of tap water use during otologic examinations and to assess methods used for disinfection of otologic instruments in outpatient settings.… Read more

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Universal precautions and mortuary practitioners: influence on practices and risk of occupationally acquired infection

Abstract

Embalming, the most common funeral practice in the United States, may expose the embalmer to infectious diseases and blood. We surveyed the 860 members of the National Selected Morticians in 1988 to estimate the incidence of self-reported occupational contact with blood and infectious disease, assess morticians’ knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), determine their adherence to universal precautions, and identify predictors of practices designed to reduce risk of occupational exposure to infections.… Read more

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Prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The Cooperative Dialysis Study Group

Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this voluntary multicenter study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the risk of nosocomial transmission of HIV in hemodialysis patients in the United States.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In June 1986, we began collecting epidemiologic data, risk factor information, and serum for HIV antibody testing from long-term hemodialysis patients on entry into the study and 1 year later.… Read more

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Economic impact of diagnosis-related groups and severity of illness on reimbursement for central nervous system infections

Abstract

Because the federal government’s diagnosis-related group (DRG) classification system for prospective payment has not been widely applied to hospitalized pediatric patients, we analyzed the effectiveness of one DRG category (central nervous system infections) for a single year at a medium-sized children’s hospital to control for patients’ severity of illness and for hospital reimbursement.… Read more

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Blood contacts during surgical procedures

Abstract

Operating room personnel are at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens through blood contact. To describe the nature and frequency of blood contact and its risk factors, trained observers monitored a sample of operations performed by six surgical services at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Ga, for 6 months.… Read more

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Risk factors for candidemia in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia

Abstract

Between 1983 and 1987 the overall incidence of candidemia at the Institut Gustave Roussy, a tertiary care referral hospital for patients with cancer, increased from 0.1% (7 of 6,801) to 0.32% (24 of 7,515) (P = .009). Because acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) was the most common underlying disease in patients with candidemia, risk factors for candidemia were analyzed in this subset of patients.… Read more

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Evaluating the “America Responds to AIDS” Campaign

Abstract

Social marketing is “the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea or practice in a target group.” It has existed in the United States for over a century and at various times has focused on such health-related behaviors as tobacco use, alcohol and drug use, control of hypertension, cancer screening, seat belt use, and-recently-behaviors placing a person at risk for HIV infection or a sexually transmitted disease.… Read more

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National nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS): description of surveillance methods

Abstract

The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) is an ongoing collaborative surveillance system sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to obtain national data on nosocomial infections. The CDC uses the data that are reported voluntarily by participating hospitals to estimate the magnitude of the nosocomial infection problem in the United States and to monitor trends in infections and risk factors.… Read more

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A cluster of Rhodococcus (Gordona) Bronchialis sternal-wound infections after coronary-artery bypass surgery

Abstract

Richet HM, Craven PC, Brown JM, Lasker BA, Cox CD, McNeil MM, Tice AD, Jarvis WR, Tablan OC

N. Engl. J. Med. 1991 Jan;324(2):104-9

PMID: 1984175

A cluster of Rhodococcus (Gordona) Bronchialis sternal-wound infections after coronary-artery bypass surgery was last modified: January 10th, 1991 by Richet HM, Craven PC, Brown JM, Lasker BA, Cox CD, McNeil MM, Tice AD, Jarvis WR, Tablan OC… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Abuse, neglect, and the HIV-infected child

Abstract

The effect of HIV on child abuse prevention must be considered on three different levels. The first consists of indirect effects: the extent to which this infection will be a burden on the health care, social service, and public assistance systems in this and other countries, leading to decreasing resources for child abuse prevention.   … Read more