Between 1983 and 1987 the overall incidence of candidemia at the Institut Gustave Roussy, a tertiary care referral hospital for patients with cancer, increased from 0.1% (7 of 6,801) to 0.32% (24 of 7,515) (P = .009). Because acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) was the most common underlying disease in patients with candidemia, risk factors for candidemia were analyzed in this subset of patients. A case-control study comparing the eight ALL patients who had candidemia with 18 ALL control patients revealed that previous bacteremia, prolonged neutropenia, prolonged fever, prolonged administration of antimicrobial agents, treatment with multiple antimicrobial agents, and a relatively high concentration of Candida organisms in stool were significant risk factors for candidemia. In a logistic regression analysis, however, only receipt of vancomycin and/or imipenem was identified as an independent risk factor for candidemia. Further analysis showed that administration of vancomycin promoted proliferation of Candida organisms in the gastrointestinal tract and that this proliferation was associated with an increased risk of candidemia.
Richet HM, Andremont A, Tancrede C, Pico JL, Jarvis WR
Rev. Infect. Dis. 1991 Mar-Apr;13(2):211-5