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Anaphylactoid reactions associated with reuse of hollow-fiber hemodialyzers and ACE inhibitors

Abstract

From July 18 through November 27, 1989, 12 anaphylactoid reactions (ARs) occurred in 10 patients at a hemodialysis center in Virginia. One patient required hospitalization; no patients died. ARs occurred within minutes of initiating dialysis and were characterized by peripheral numbness and tingling, laryngeal edema or angioedema, facial or generalized sensation of warmth, and/or nausea or vomiting.… Read more

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CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections

Abstract

Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG

Am J Infect Control 1992 Oct;20(5):271-4

PMID: 1332552

CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections was last modified: October 1st, 1992 by Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections

Abstract

Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992 Oct;13(10):606-8

PMID: 1334988

CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections was last modified: October 1st, 1992 by Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG… Read more
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A prospective study of pyrogenic reactions in hemodialysis patients using bicarbonate dialysis fluids filtered to remove bacteria and endotoxin

Abstract

Pyrogenic reactions (PR) are a well-recognized complication of hemodialysis and have been associated with dialyzer reuse, high-flux dialysis, and bicarbonate dialysate. However, the roles of bacteria and endotoxin in dialysate for producing PR are not well defined. To determine the effect of removing most bacteria and endotoxin from the dialysate on the incidence of PR, a cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients receiving high-flux, high-efficiency, or conventional hemodialysis at three centers with bicarbonate dialysis fluids that had been filtered with a polysulfone high-flux hemodialyzer was prospectively studied.… Read more

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Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common and unusual species of enterococci causing infections in the United States. Enterococcal Study Group

Abstract

We collected 705 isolates of enterococci (1 per patient) from cultures of a variety of anatomic sites from patients at eight tertiary-care hospitals in six geographic regions of the United States. A total of 632 (90%) Enterococcus faecalis, 58 (8%) E.… Read more

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Tuberculin skin testing of hospital employees during an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients

Abstract

Tokars JI, Jarvis WR, Edlin BR, Dooley SW, Grieco MH, Gilligan ME, Schneider N, Montonez M, Williams J

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992 Sep;13(9):509-10

PMID: 1430996

Tuberculin skin testing of hospital employees during an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was last modified: September 1st, 1992 by Tokars JI, Jarvis WR, Edlin BR, Dooley SW, Grieco MH, Gilligan ME, Schneider N, Montonez M, Williams J… Read more
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Outbreak of surgical wound infections associated with total hip arthroplasty

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Describe an outbreak of surgical wound infections associated with total hip arthroplasty; identify risk factors for surgical wound infection during the pre-outbreak and outbreak periods.

SETTING: A 100-bed hospital. From May 1 to September 30, 1988, 7 of 15 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty developed surgical wound infections from Staphylococcus aureus (5), Enterobacter cloacae (1), beta-hemolytic streptococci (1), enterococci (1), coagulase-negative staphylococci (1), and Escherichia coli (1) (attack rate = 46.7%).… Read more

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Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among patients and health care workers (HCWs) in a ward and clinic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in a hospital, four studies were conducted.

METHODS: Case patients and control patients were persons who had been treated in the HIV ward or clinic, whose clinical course was consistent with tuberculosis and who had at least one positive culture for M tuberculosis between January 1, 1988, and January 31, 1990, resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin (case patients), or whose isolates were susceptible to all drugs tested (control patients).… Read more

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Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A risk to patients and health care workers

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients at a New York City Hospital and to investigate possible nosocomial transmission.

DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study and tuberculin skin test survey.

PATIENTS: Twenty-three patients with tuberculosis whose isolates were resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin (case patients) were compared with patients with tuberculosis whose isolates were susceptible to all agents tested (controls).… Read more

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The pediatrician’s role in encouraging parent-child communication about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We explored whether communication from pediatrician to parent to child might assist in education about and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by comparing parents of children aged 10 through 17 years who did discuss acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with their children with parents of children aged 10 through 17 years who did not discuss AIDS with their children.… Read more

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Recall of AIDS public service announcements and their impact on the ranking of AIDS as a national problem

Abstract

The efficacy of two public service announcements from Phase V of the “America Responds to AIDS” (ARTA) campaign was assessed at two sites. Participants were randomly assigned to view a local news program, one with an ARTA public service announcement appearing six times and the other with no AIDS public service announcements.… Read more

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Mannan antigenemia during invasive candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis

Abstract

McNeill MM, Gerber AR, McLaughlin DW, Vega RA, Winn K, Kaufmann L, Keyserling HL, Jarvis WR

Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1992 Jun;11(6):493-6

PMID: 1608689

Mannan antigenemia during invasive candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis was last modified: June 1st, 1992 by McNeill MM, Gerber AR, McLaughlin DW, Vega RA, Winn K, Kaufmann L, Keyserling HL, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis in a hospital unit for HIV-infected patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB).

DESIGN: A historical cohort study of hospitalized patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test survey of health care workers (HCWs).

SETTING: A large public teaching hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico.… Read more

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Outbreak of pseudoinfection with Tsukamurella paurometabolum traced to laboratory contamination: efficacy of joint epidemiological and laboratory investigation

Abstract

From January 1988 to May 1989, one hospital in South Carolina reported 12 isolates of Tsukamurella paurometabolum from 10 patients. There were no common risk factors among the patients. Case-control studies revealed that the positive specimens were significantly more likely to have been processed in the TB/fungal room, to have been tissue samples, and to have been handled by one technician.… Read more

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A cluster of severe postoperative bleeding following open heart surgery

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a cluster of postoperative bleeding following open heart surgery.

DESIGN: A cohort and case/control study.

SETTING: Palo Alto Veterans Administration Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.

PARTICIPANTS: Six (21.4%) of 28 patients undergoing open heart surgery who developed severe, nonsurgical, postoperative bleeding from July 1 through August 30, 1988 (outbreak period).… Read more

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Outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal infections in a nursing home. Lessons on prevention and control

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Nine outbreaks of group A streptococcal (GAS) infections in nursing homes were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, Ga) during the past two winters. We conducted an intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of one of these outbreaks to determine clinical characteristics, risk factors for transmission and infection, and methods of control and prevention.… Read more

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Prevalence of serotypes of Xanthomonas maltophilia from world-wide sources

Abstract

Since its development in 1988, a serologic typing scheme for Xanthomonas maltophilia, based on 31 O antigens, has been successfully used to serotype isolates involved in nosocomial outbreaks in the United States. To determine if this serotyping scheme would be useful in typing X.… Read more

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Risk factors for epidemic Xanthomonas maltophilia infection/colonization in intensive care unit patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for and modes of transmission of Xanthomonas maltophilia infection/colonization.

DESIGN: Surveillance and cohort study.

SETTING: A 470-bed tertiary trauma-referral community hospital.

PATIENTS: From January 1, 1988 to March 17, 1989, 106 intensive care unit patients developed X maltophilia infection/colonization.… Read more

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Predominant pathogens in hospital infections

Abstract

To determine the distribution of pathogens causing nosocomial infections in United States hospitals, we analysed data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. From October 1986 to December 1990, amongst hospitals conducting hospital-wide surveillance, the five most commonly reported pathogens were Escherichia coli (13.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%), enterococci (10.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.7%).… Read more

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Bacteriologic and endotoxin analysis of salvaged blood used in autologous transfusions during cardiac operations

Abstract

Autologous blood transfusion is a common method of reducing the need for heterologous blood transfusion during cardiac operations. Recently we investigated an outbreak of severe, nonsurgical postoperative bleeding among patients undergoing heart operations and receiving intraoperative transfusion of blood from a cell conservation device (Cell Saver System, Haemonetics Corp., Braintree, Mass.).… Read more

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Pyrogenic reactions in patients receiving conventional, high-efficiency, or high-flux hemodialysis treatments with bicarbonate dialysate containing high concentrations of bacteria and endotoxin

Abstract

High-efficiency (HE) and high-flux (HF) hemodialysis are becoming increasingly popular methods for treating patients with chronic renal failure because they reduce the time required for dialysis treatment. HF and HE dialyzers require bicarbonate dialysate, often prepared from concentrates that can support bacterial growth with endotoxin production.… Read more

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Aspergillus fumigatus sternal wound infections in patients undergoing open heart surgery

Abstract

During a 21-month period (July 1986-April 1988), six patients who underwent open heart surgery at Holston Valley Hospital and Medical Center in Kingsport, Tennessee, developed sternal would infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. All patients required sternectomy, reconstructive surgery, and long term amphotericin B therapy; no patient died.… Read more