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Infectious diseases and mortality among US nursing home residents

Abstract

Data collected in the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey were analyzed to identify risk factors for infections and mortality and to explore their relationship in US nursing homes. An infection was recorded in 166,609 (14%) discharges. Risk of pneumonia was found to be higher among bedbound patients (54.5 vs 13.1 per 100 discharges); urinary tract and other infections were most frequent among residents with indwelling catheters (6.6 vs 1.0 per 100 discharges).… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Addressing the public’s concerns about human immunodeficiency virus transmission in health-care settings

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The 1990 report of a cluster of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with a Florida dentist with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome attracted considerable media coverage and legislative attention. A number of polls found that the public favored mandatory HIV-antibody testing of health-care workers.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Educating Young Adults About HIV and AIDS: the Impact of Direct Response Television Public Service Advertising

ABSTRACT Limited resources combined with a desire to reach as many people as possible often make direct response public service announcements an important tool in educational campaigns. To understand the impact of direct-response TV PSAs, and find ways to increase their effectiveness, this study examined 1) the effects of a highly targeted HIV prevention message on young adults’ knowledge, perceptions, and intentions; and 2) whether altering two PSA elements, the telephone number used and the length of time it was displayed, would affect viewers’ recall and intention responses.  … Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Cluster of Enterobacter cloacae pseudobacteremias associated with use of an agar slant blood culturing system

Abstract

From 1 February through 12 October 1990, 27 blood cultures processed at Shiprock Hospital were positive for Enterobacter cloacae; only 3 had been reported in the preceding 12 months. Twenty (74%) of the cultures were obtained from patients without clinical evidence of gram-negative septicemia.… Read more

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Potential use of mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users with AIDS prevention messages

Abstract

To access the potential of using the mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users (IVDUs) with AIDS prevention messages,

we: 1) questioned 353 participants in a Baltimore IVDU cohort study on their media use and sources of AIDS information, 2) analyzed data on Baltimore AIDS public service announcement (PSA) airings during a 3-month period, and 3) discussed with media executives their willingness to air a variety of potential AIDS messages.… Read more

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Secular trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in the United States, 1980-1990. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

To identify pathogens causing nosocomial fungal infections and the secular trend in their incidence in US hospitals, data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System, 1980-1990, were analyzed. During that period, 30,477 fungal infections were reported. The rate rose from 2.0 to 3.8 infections/1000 discharges.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Hemophilia growth and development study. Design, methods, and entry data

Abstract

PURPOSE: The study design, research questions, and baseline data are presented from a multicenter longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on three areas of functioning in children and adolescents with hemophilia: physical growth and sexual maturation, immune function, and neurological and neuropsychological functioning.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Outbreak of Pseudomonas cepacia bacteremia in oncology patients

Abstract

In 1991, an outbreak of Pseudomonas cepacia bacteremia (PCB) occurred among patients at an oncology clinic in Alabama. A case-patient was defined as any patient at Alabama Oncology Hematology Associates (AOHA) who had at least one blood culture positive for P.… Read more

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Nosocomial infections in surgical patients in the United States, January 1986-June 1992. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe the distribution of nosocomial infections among surgical patients by site of infection for different types of operations, and to show how the risk of certain adverse outcomes associated with nosocomial infection varied by site, type of operation, and exposure to specific medical devices.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Using indices to differentiate dimensions of knowledge regarding modes of HIV transmission in the U.S. population, 1987-1989

Abstract

The number of HIV-infected individuals is increasing, making it important for the public to understand not only how HIV is transmitted but also the lack of transmission risk associated with casual contact. Using CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics National Health Interview Survey, we divided modes of transmission items into two areas of knowledge: “True Transmission” and “False Transmission.” Items were recoded with scores from 3 for the most correct response to 0 for the most incorrect response for each of three items related to true and each of eight items related to false transmission.… Read more