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Pseudo-outbreak of Enterococcus durans infections and colonization associated with introduction of an automated identification system software update

Abstract

Enterococci are an important cause of hospital-acquired infections. Since 1989, there has been an increase in the number of nosocomial enterococcal infections caused by strains resistant to vancomycin in the United States. Although many enterococcal species can colonize humans, only Enterococcus faecalis, E.… Read more

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Bloodstream infections in home infusion patients: the influence of race and needleless intravascular access devices

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the cause of increased central venous catheter-associated (CVC) bloodstream infection (BSI) rates in a cohort of pediatric hematology /oncology patients receiving home health care (HHC).

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hematology/oncology patients with CVCs receiving HHC from January 1992 through November 1994.… Read more

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Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: epidemiologic and laboratory confirmation of a common source outbreak

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). When a cluster of C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections occurred in NICU patients in a hospital in Louisiana, it provided us with the opportunity to conduct an epidemiologic investigation and to apply newly developed molecular typing techniques.… Read more

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The expanding role of healthcare epidemiology–home and long-term care

Abstract

Garrett DO, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996 Nov;17(11):714-7

PMID: 8934236

The expanding role of healthcare epidemiology–home and long-term care was last modified: November 1st, 1996 by Garrett DO, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Nosocomial Burkholderia cepacia outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks

Abstract

Mangram A, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996 Nov;17(11):718-20

PMID: 8934237

Nosocomial Burkholderia cepacia outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks was last modified: November 1st, 1996 by Mangram A, Jarvis WR… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections

Abstract

This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections.… Read more

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Nosocomial infections among neonates in high-risk nurseries in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections result in considerable morbidity and mortality among neonates in high-risk nurseries (HRNs).

PURPOSE: To examine the epidemiology of nosocomial infections among neonates in level III HRNs.

METHODS: Data were collected from 99 hospitals with HRNs participating in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system, which uses standard surveillance protocols and nosocomial infection site definitions.… Read more

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Status of tuberculosis infection control programs at United States hospitals, 1989 to 1992. APIC. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent nosocomial outbreaks have raised concern about the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in United States hospitals.

METHODS: To determine current tuberculosis (TB) infection control practices, we surveyed a sample of approximately 3000 acute care facilities about the number of patients with drug-susceptible or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), health care worker (HCW) tuberculin skin test (TST) results, and compliance with the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) TB guidelines.… Read more

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Preventing the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms through antimicrobial use controls: the complexity of the problem

Abstract

Widespread use of antimicrobials in the inpatient and outpatient setting has been associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. A variety of methods exist to improve the appropriateness of antimicrobial use in the inpatient setting, including guidelines, antimicrobial use evaluations, micribiology laboratory guidance, formulary development and antimicrobial restriction, use of antimicrobial order or automatic stop order forms, and antimicrobial audits.… Read more

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Selected aspects of the socioeconomic impact of nosocomial infections: morbidity, mortality, cost, and prevention

Abstract

Approximately 2 million nosocomial infections occur annually in the United States. These infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. The excess duration of hospitalization secondary to nosocomial infections has been estimated to be 1 to 4 days for urinary tract infections, 7 to 8.2 days for surgical site infections, 7 to 21 days for bloodstream infections, and 6.8 to 30 days for pneumonia.… Read more

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Bloodstream infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe the population in whom bloodstream infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci occur and the clinical and microbiologic features of infection.

METHODS: From June 1, 1991, to January 31, 1994, 73 patients with bloodstream infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci were identified by retrospective review of hospital charts and microbiology records.… Read more

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Risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in surgical intensive-care-unit patients

Abstract

Patients admitted during the study period to the Sharp Memorial Hospital intensive-care units who required mechanical ventilation were followed prospectively; 15 (10.4%) of 145 acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Duration of prior oral or nasal intubation and H2 receptor antagonists use were longer among patients who developed VAP than among those who did not.… Read more

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The effects of mitogens, IL-2 and anti-CD3 antibody on the T-cell receptor V beta repertoire

Abstract

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Concanavalin A (Con A), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and monoclonal antibodies to CD3 (CD3MoAbs) are used for the assessment of the T-cell receptor (TCR) BV gene family expression in autoimmune disorders and multiple sclerosis, and to produce clones for assessment of cytokine profiles in progressive human immunodeficiency virus infection.… Read more

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Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: a national and international priority

Abstract

Jarvis WR, Cookson ST, Robles MB

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996 May;17(5):272-5

PMID: 8727614

Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: a national and international priority was last modified: May 1st, 1996 by Jarvis WR, Cookson ST, Robles MB… Read more
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Gram-negative bacteremia in open-heart-surgery patients traced to probable tap-water contamination of pressure-monitoring equipment

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause(s) of an outbreak of gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in open-heart-surgery (OHS) patients at hospital A.

DESIGN: Case-control and cohort studies and an environmental survey.

RESULTS: Nine patients developed GNB with Enterobacter cloacae (6), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Serratia marcescens (2), or Klebsiella oxytoca (1) following OHS; five of nine patients had polymicrobial bacteremia.… Read more

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Ochrobactrum anthropi meningitis in pediatric pericardial allograft transplant recipients

Abstract

An epidemiologic investigation was done after 3 patients contracted Ochrobactrum anthropi meningitis at one hospital in October 1994. Neurosurgical patients with pericardial tissue implants were at greater risk of infection than other neurosurgical patients (3/14 vs. 0/566; P… Read more

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The role of understaffing in central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI) during a protracted outbreak.

DESIGN: Case-control and cohort studies of surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients.

SETTING: A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center.

PATIENTS: Case-control study: all patients who developed a CVC-BSI during the outbreak period (January 1992 through September 1993) and randomly selected controls.… Read more

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U.S. hospital mycobacteriology laboratories: status and comparison with state public health department laboratories

Abstract

In response to the resurgence of tuberculosis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of certain mycobacteriology laboratory methods to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and/or minimize times to complete specimen processing. A study to determine the extent to which these recommended methods were being used in hospital laboratories was needed.… Read more

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Acremonium kiliense endophthalmitis that occurred after cataract extraction in an ambulatory surgical center and was traced to an environmental reservoir

Abstract

During October and November 1993, four patients contracted Acremonium kiliense endophthalmitis at one ambulatory surgical center. We hypothesized that the source was environmental and conducted a matched case-control study, environmental evaluation, and observational studies. Case and control patients were similar in clinical characteristics.… Read more

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The epidemiology of colonization

Abstract

Colonization is the presence of a microorganism in or on a host, with growth and multiplication but without any overt clinical expression or detected immune response in the host at the time it is isolated. Normal colonization in humans begins during the birth process and through subsequent contacts with the inanimate or animate environments until a delicately balanced “normal” flora is established; subsequently, the precise components of this flora evolve.… Read more