Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Respiratory distress and sudden death associated with receipt of a peripheral parenteral nutrition admixture

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To detect respiratory adverse reactions potentially related to receipt of peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) in hospitalized patients and to determine risk factors for their occurrence.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Federal tertiary-care hospital.

PATIENTS: Medical and pharmacy records of all patients who received PPN from October 1992 to February 1994 were abstracted for demographics, diagnoses, medications received, indications for and formulation of PPN, and severity of illness as measured by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Patient density, nurse-to-patient ratio and nosocomial infection risk in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An investigation of a Serratia marcescens outbreak in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) suggested that understaffing or overcrowding might have been underlying risk factors.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of fluctuations in CICU nurse staffing levels and patient census on CICU nosocomial infection rate (NIR).… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Secular trends in bloodstream infection caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in New Jersey hospitals, 1991 to 1995

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria is an increasing public health problem. In 1991, New Jersey was the first state to establish statewide, hospital-based surveillance for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

METHODS: Each month, all 96 nonfederal New Jersey hospital laboratories complete a form listing the species identity and drug susceptibility results for selected antimicrobial-resistant bacteria isolated from blood cultures from hospital inpatients.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Evaluation of the acceptability of a needleless vascular-access system by nurses

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Needleless intravenous-access devices have been introduced in an effort to reduce needlestick injuries and possible transmission of blood-borne pathogens to health care workers. However, there are no data on the acceptance of these devices by nursing personnel.

METHODS: A survey of nursing personnel was taken at Indiana University Medical Center after introduction of a needleless intravenous device to determine their opinion after use of the needleless device.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Serratia marcescens outbreak associated with extrinsic contamination of 1% chlorxylenol soap

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for Serratia marcescens infection or colonization, and to identify the source of the pathogen and factors facilitating its persistence in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) during an outbreak.

DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study; review of NICU infection control policies, soap use, and handwashing practices among healthcare workers (HCWs); and selected environmental cultures.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

A semiquantitative analysis of the fecal flora of patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: colonized patients pose an infection control risk

Abstract

Montecalvo MA, Shay DK, Gedris C, Petrullo C, Uman J, Rodney K, Jarvis WR, Wormser GP

Clin. Infect. Dis. 1997 Oct;25(4):929-30

PMID: 9356817

A semiquantitative analysis of the fecal flora of patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: colonized patients pose an infection control risk was last modified: October 1st, 1997 by Montecalvo MA, Shay DK, Gedris C, Petrullo C, Uman J, Rodney K, Jarvis WR, Wormser GP… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Study to determine the ability of clinical laboratories to detect antimicrobial-resistant Enterococcus spp. in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Abstract

Few reports of vancomycin-resistant enterococci have appeared outside the USA. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of five laboratories in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to perform susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method. Laboratories had difficulty identifying the low- and intermediate-level vancomycin-resistant phenotypes.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Pyrogenic reactions in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization associated with contaminated glass medicine cups

Abstract

Pyrogenic reactions are potentially life-threatening complications caused by bacterial endotoxin. After two cardiac catheterization patients developed rigors the same day, the procedures were halted and a case control study was conducted. To identify case patients (persons with rigors < or = 3 hr after catheterization during September 25-November 9, 1995), we reviewed medical records of all cardiac catheterization patients who had a blood culture or received intravenous meperidine. Twelve case patients and 40 randomly selected control patients were identified. No specific catheter was associated with case patients, but exposure to intracoronary-nitroglycerin (NTG) was (odds ratio = 12.0; 95% confidence interval 2.2, 75.6). NTG or indocyanine green dye was poured into glass medicine cups previously washed in an enzyme cleaner and then sterilized. The cleaner, used for an entire day, had elevated levels of gram-negative bacteria (> 10(4) colony forming units/mL) and endotoxin (434 endotoxin units [EU]/mL]); the reprocessed cups had no live bacteria but had elevated endotoxin levels (median 2,250 EU).… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Immunoregulatory changes in Kawasaki disease

Abstract

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology, occurring in young children and treated with intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) to prevent significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. We studied KD patients pre- and post-IVIG therapy and at >40 days posttherapy, additionally comparing them with matched pediatric control patients and parents.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Single-cell cytokine profiles in normal humans: comparison of flow cytometric reagents and stimulation protocols

Abstract

Cytokines are produced and function at a micro environmental level: intracellular assessment has only recently become practically feasible. We used 3-color flow cytometry to examine surface and cytoplasmic antigens on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 18 normal donors, assessing the applicability/comparability of various directly conjugated anti-human cytokine reagents and stimulation protocols using separated cells or whole blood preparations.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Platelet transfusion reaction due to Yersinia enterocolitica

Abstract

Kuehnert MJ, Jarvis WR, Schaffer DA, Chaffin DJ

JAMA 1997 Aug;278(7):550

PMID: 9268274

Platelet transfusion reaction due to Yersinia enterocolitica was last modified: August 20th, 1997 by Kuehnert MJ, Jarvis WR, Schaffer DA, Chaffin DJ… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Pseudo-outbreak of septicemia due to rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with extrinsic contamination of culture supplement

Abstract

Between April and December 1994, 23 blood cultures from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients grew rapidly growing mycobacteria suspected to be Mycobacterium chelonae at a hospital in New Jersey. The isolates were later identified as M. abscessus. Several bacterial species, including M.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections among patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy traced to breaks in infection control and possible extrinsic contamination by propofol

Abstract

Infectious complications associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are extremely unusual. When five of nine patients undergoing ECT at one facility on June 20, 1996 developed Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI), an investigation was initiated. A retrospective cohort study, a procedure review, and observational and microbiologic studies were performed.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

The cost of selected tuberculosis control measures at hospitals with a history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreaks

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost of nonrespirator-related tuberculosis (TB) control measures at several hospitals, following publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s revised TB infection control guidelines.

DESIGN: Infection control (IC) and TB coordinators obtained cost information on tuberculin skin-test (TST) programs, addition of IC and employee health service (EHS) personnel, and the retrofit or new construction of environmental controls.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Changing epidemiology of nosocomial infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

Abstract

Kuehnert MJ, Jarvis WR

Clin. Infect. Dis. 1997 Aug;25(2):321-3

PMID: 9332533

Changing epidemiology of nosocomial infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients was last modified: August 1st, 1997 by Kuehnert MJ, Jarvis WR… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci outside the health-care setting: prevalence, sources, and public health implications

Abstract

Although nosocomial acquisition and subsequent colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), an emerging international threat to public health, has been emphasized in the United States, colonization among nonhospitalized persons has been infrequently documented. In contrast, in Europe, colonization appears to occur frequently in persons outside the health-care setting.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Prevention of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Abstract

The recent resurgence of TB together with the ongoing HIV epidemic has resulted in a larger number of infectious TB patients being admitted to US health care facilities. These patients have become a source for both nosocomial (patient-to-patient) and occupational (patient-to-health care worker) M.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Detecting pediatric nosocomial infections: how do infection control and quality assurance personnel compare?

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare how well infection control (IC) and quality assurance (QA) personnel in a specialty setting identify the presence, type (nosocomial or community-acquired), and (if nosocomial) site of infection.

METHODS: In 1994, we mailed a survey that included 21 pediatric case histories to IC and QA personnel in pediatric settings in the United States (children’s hospitals and medical school-affiliated hospitals with pediatric wards of 30 beds).… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Status of tuberculosis infection control programs at Texas hospitals, 1989 through 1991

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Paralleling the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, the reported number of persons with TB in Texas increased by 33% during 1985 through 1992, the third largest rise among all the states. This increase prompted us to survey hospitals in Texas to determine their degree of compliance with recommendations in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention TB guidelines.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Epidemiology of vancomycin usage at a children’s hospital, 1993 through 1995

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of vancomycin usage at a children’s hospital.

METHODS: A cohort study of patients at Egleston Children’s Hospital who were charged for the receipt of vancomycin from October, 1992, through October, 1995, was performed. Data were obtained from pharmacy charge records in the hospital’s medical records information system.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Community-acquired bacteremia in Zimbabwe and the global cost of contaminated blood cultures

Abstract

McDonald LC, Jarvis WR

Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1997 May;16(5):537-8

PMID: 9154561

Community-acquired bacteremia in Zimbabwe and the global cost of contaminated blood cultures was last modified: May 1st, 1997 by McDonald LC, Jarvis WR… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Postoperative Serratia marcescens wound infections traced to an out-of-hospital source

Abstract

From 25 August to 28 September 1994, 7 cardiovascular surgery (CVS) patients at a California hospital acquired postoperative Serratia marcescens infections, and 1 died. To identify the outbreak source, a cohort study was done of all 55 adults who underwent CVS at the hospital during the outbreak.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Tracing patients exposed to health care workers with tuberculosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Following an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) among health care workers at a public hospital, the study was undertaken to (a) locate all exposed patients and administer tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) to them, (b) provide clinical treatment or prophylaxis to infected patients, and (c) ascertain the risk of M.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Outbreak investigations

Abstract

Epidemic nosocomial infections are defined as hospital-acquired infections that represent an increase in incidence over expected rates. Epidemic-associated infections usually are clustered temporally or geographically, suggesting that the infections are from a common source or are secondary to increased person-to-person transmission.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

HIV antigens and T-cell receptor variable beta chain families

Abstract

The authors investigated whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has restrictive effects on the variable region of the beta chain (V beta) of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), by in vitro cultivation of non-HIV-infected peripheral blood lymphocytes with one of six HIV antigens or heat-inactivated whole virus (HIV-HI).… Read more