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EMERGEncy ID NET: an emergency department-based emerging infections sentinel network. The EMERGEncy ID NET Study Group

Abstract

Acute infectious disease presentations among many at-risk patient groups (eg, uninsured, homeless, and recent immigrants) are frequently seen in emergency departments. Therefore EDs may be useful sentinel sites for infectious disease surveillance. This article describes the background, development, and implementation of EMERGE ncy ID NET, an interdisciplinary, multicenter, ED-based network for research of emerging infectious diseases.… Read more

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Nocardia farcinica sternotomy site infections in patients following open heart surgery

Abstract

Although Nocardia farcinica surgical site infection outbreaks have been reported (though rarely), no source for these has been identified. From May 1992 through June 1993, 5 patients contracted N. farcinica sternotomy site infections following open heart surgery at hospital A.… Read more

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Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial bloodstream infections traced to extrinsic contamination of a dextrose multidose vial

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for polymicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients during an outbreak of BSIs.

DESIGN: During an outbreak of BSIs, we conducted a retrospective cohort study, assessed NICU infection control practices and patient exposure to NICU healthcare workers (HCWs), and obtained cultures of the environment and HCW hands.… Read more

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Outbreak of sterile peritonitis among continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis patients

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30,000 patients receive peritoneal dialysis in the United States. In August 1996, several dialysis centers from different states reported sterile peritonitis among CCPD patients using sterile peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) from a single manufacturer. The manufacturer recalled 53 lots of PDS that had passed established industry guidelines and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved quality control tests [including endotoxin levels 1 cfu/ml.… Read more

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Risk of infectious disease transmission from a common communion cup

Abstract

Manangan LP, Sehulster LM, Chiarello L, Simonds DN, Jarvis WR

Am J Infect Control 1998 Oct;26(5):538-9

PMID: 9795685

Risk of infectious disease transmission from a common communion cup was last modified: October 1st, 1998 by Manangan LP, Sehulster LM, Chiarello L, Simonds DN, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Candida albicans endocarditis associated with a contaminated aortic valve allograft: implications for regulation of allograft processing

Abstract

A patient developed Candida albicans endocarditis and fungemia after undergoing aortic valve replacement with an allograft. The allograft had been found during tissue bank processing to be contaminated with C. albicans, but it was culture-negative for C. albicans after routine disinfection with an antifungal-containing antimicrobial solution.… Read more

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Line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive-care-unit patients associated with a needleless device and intermittent intravenous therapy

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for an increase in line-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in three pediatric intensive-care units at one hospital that recently had changed brands of needleless access device.

DESIGN: Retrospective case-control studies; review of the units’ infection control policies and procedures for accessing and replacing components of needleless access devices.… Read more

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The costs of healthcare worker respiratory protection and fit-testing programs

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We studied hospital costs associated with healthcare worker (HCW) respiratory protection and respirator fit-testing programs recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to decrease nosocomial or occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB).… Read more

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Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in neonates in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

DESIGN: Two case-control studies among hospitalized neonates during February 15-May 14, 1991, and a procedural and microbiological investigation.… Read more

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Linking antimicrobial use to nosocomial infections: the role of a combined laboratory-epidemiology approach

Abstract

McDonald LC, Jarvis WR

Ann. Intern. Med. 1998 Aug;129(3):245-7

PMID: 9696734

Linking antimicrobial use to nosocomial infections: the role of a combined laboratory-epidemiology approach was last modified: August 1st, 1998 by McDonald LC, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Outbreak of Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infections in a nursery associated with contaminated aerosols and air conditioners

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter spp. are multidrug-resistant bacteria that grow well in water and cause infections with unexplained, increased summer prevalence. In August, 1996, eight infants acquired Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infection (A-BSI) while in a nursery in the Bahamas; three infants died and an investigation was initiated.… Read more

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Are US hospitals making progress in implementing guidelines for prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission?

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) in hospitals have occurred when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline recommendations for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were not fully implemented.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether US hospitals are making progress in implementing the CDC guidelines for preventing TB.… Read more

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Disco fever: epidemic meningococcal disease in northeastern Argentina associated with disco patronage

Abstract

Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of adult meningitis worldwide. From 5 to 14 August 1996, 8 cases of meningococcal disease occurred in Corrientes city (population 306,000) in northeastern Argentina. Those infected ranged in age from 15 to 45 years (median, 18.5).… Read more

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Nonperinatal nosocomial transmission of Candida albicans in a neonatal intensive care unit: prospective study

Abstract

Nosocomial Candida albicans infections have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To determine the possible modes of acquisition of C. albicans in hospitalized neonates, we conducted a prospective study at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Ga.… Read more

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Epidemiology, appropriateness, and cost of vancomycin use

Abstract

Pharmaceutical costs, which approach $40 billion annually, account for about 8% of health care costs. Prescription drugs represent 5% to 20% of the total hospital budget, and antimicrobials account for 20% to 50% of hospital pharmaceutical costs. At one university hospital, the percentage of patients receiving antimicrobials increased from 31.8% in 1988 to 53.1% in 1994.… Read more

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Xenotransplantation: Is the future upon us?

Abstract

Pearson ML, Jarvis WR, Folks TM, Chapman LE

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998 May;19(5):305-7

PMID: 9613689

Xenotransplantation: Is the future upon us? was last modified: May 1st, 1998 by Pearson ML, Jarvis WR, Folks TM, Chapman LE… Read more
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Risk factors for early recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

Abstract

Recurrence is a common sequela of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDD) and may increase morbidity, costs, and treatment-related antimicrobial resistance. Because recurrent CDD (RCDD) frequently occurs very soon after an initial episode, our goal was to determine the risk factors for early RCDD (occurring < or = 45 days after the initial episode). We conducted a case-control study, comparing 13 patients with early RCDD (case patients) with 46 patients who had only one CDD episode (control patients) at Centre Hospitalier Angrignon (Québec) during January 1993 through November 1994. Risk factors for early RCDD included a history of chronic renal insufficiency, a white blood cell count of > or = 15 x 10(3)/mm3, and community-acquired diarrhea with the first CDD episode.… Read more

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Liver failure and death after exposure to microcystins at a hemodialysis center in Brazil

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis is a common but potentially hazardous procedure. From February 17 to 20, 1996, 116 of 130 patients (89 percent) at a dialysis center (dialysis center A) in Caruaru, Brazil, had visual disturbances, nausea, and vomiting associated with hemodialysis.… Read more

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An epidemic of Malassezia pachydermatis in an intensive care nursery associated with colonization of health care workers’ pet dogs

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that are emerging as nosocomial pathogens, particularly in low-birth-weight neonates who receive lipid emulsions. When a cluster of patients with Malassezia pachydermatis infection was identified in an intensive care nursery, we initiated an investigation.… Read more

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Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infection in the 1990s

Abstract

Trick WE, Jarvis WR

Rev Iberoam Micol 1998 Mar;15(1):2-6

PMID: 17655394

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infection in the 1990s was last modified: March 1st, 1998 by Trick WE, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine if an apparent increase in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) was associated with the implementation of a needleless access device.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using a derived CVC-days factor for estimating appropriate denominator data.… Read more

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Use of an estimation method to derive an appropriate denominator to calculate central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection rates

Abstract

An outbreak investigation was conducted to determine if an increase in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) had occurred. Because other methods of obtaining CVC days were not feasible, we used an estimation method based on a random 5% sample of medical records to determine the proportion of days that a CVC was present for each of three patient units.… Read more

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A cluster of bloodstream infections and pyrogenic reactions among hemodialysis patients traced to dialysis machine waste-handling option units

Abstract

From June 17 through November 15, 1995, ten episodes of Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infection and three pyrogenic reactions occurred in patients at a hospital-based hemodialysis center. In a case-control study limited to events occurring during October 1-31, 1995, seven dialysis sessions resulting in E.… Read more

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Kawasaki disease and the T-cell antigen receptor

Abstract

We investigated the evidence for an infectious etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology, by assessing the effects of KD on the T cell antigen receptor variable beta region families (V beta). Using 3-color flow cytometry, we studied KD patients pre- and post-intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) therapy and at > 40 days post therapy, additionally comparing them to matched pediatric control patients (PCC) and their own healthy parents (one parent/KD child).… Read more