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Peripheral blood cell-specific cytokines in persons with untreated HIV infection in Malawi, Africa

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, Africa, because of its many effects on the immune system. Immune cells communicate through cytokines; therefore, we examined the relationships between HIV serostatus and cell-specific cytokine production for 40 asymptomatic, employed adults and 312 acutely ill, hospitalized patients in Malawi.… Read more

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Demographic and immune correlates of human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity in Malawi, Africa

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the USA, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and HIV infection. We examined HHV-8 seroprevalence in a Malawian cohort, and assessed its relationship with HIV, KS, demographic characteristics, and immune findings.

METHODS: In 1997 and 1998, blood samples were obtained from 272 hospitalized Malawian patients, for whom demographic information was obtained, and 24 healthy volunteers without demographic data.… Read more

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Clinical and immune impact of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination scarring

Abstract

The World Health Organization recommends Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence. BCG’s clinical and immune effects, not necessarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific, are unclear. BCG vaccine scarring often is used as a surrogate marker of vaccination or of effective vaccination.… Read more

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Automated Evaluation of AIDS Messages with High‐Risk, Low‐Literacy Audiences

Abstract

A series of televised public service announcements (PSAs) about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was evaluated with 100 black participants attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Since the literacy level of the participants was suspected to be low, questions were administered orally and an electronic data collection technique was used which permitted the participants to push buttons, as opposed to speaking or writing responses.… Read more

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Evaluation and treatment of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis: a survey of neonatologists’ practices

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain current diagnostic and treatment practices for suspected late-onset sepsis in infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and identify areas that may benefit from clinical practice guidelines.

METHODS: During June 2000, we conducted a multicenter survey of neonatologists and infection control professionals regarding practices related to late-onset sepsis in NICUs at children’s hospitals participating in the Pediatric Prevention Network.… Read more

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Risk factors for Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization and infection among patients with cystic fibrosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for acquiring Burkholderia cepacia complex among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted with active surveillance for B cepacia complex colonization/infection among patients at 21 CF centers from April 1986 to March 1989 (study period).… Read more

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Spontaneous cytokine production and its effect on induced production

Abstract

Cytokines regulate cellular immune activity and are produced by a variety of cells, especially lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. Multiparameter flow cytometry is often used to examine cell-specific cytokine production after in vitro phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin induction, with brefeldin A or other agents added to inhibit protein secretion.… Read more

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Infection due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype infantis in a neonatal unit

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the investigation and control of an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Infantis in a neonatal unit in Brazil.

METHODS: A case-control study for risk factors for Salmonella Infantis systemic infection, environmental cultures, and evaluation of staffing and overcrowding and an assessment of infection control practices were performed.… Read more

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From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Disseminated infection with Simiae-avium group mycobacteria in persons with AIDS–Thailand and Malawi, 1997

Abstract

Reller LB, Archibald LK, Jarvis WR, Grohskopf LA

JAMA 2002 Jul;288(2):157, discussion 157-8

PMID: 12113261

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Disseminated infection with Simiae-avium group mycobacteria in persons with AIDS–Thailand and Malawi, 1997 was last modified: July 10th, 2002 by Reller LB, Archibald LK, Jarvis WR, Grohskopf LA… Read more
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An outbreak of neonatal deaths in Brazil associated with contaminated intravenous fluids

Abstract

A nursery outbreak of fever and clinical sepsis resulted in the deaths of 36 neonates in Roraima, Brazil. To determine the cause, epidemiologic studies were performed, along with culture and endotoxin analysis of intravenous (iv) fluids. Affected neonates were more likely to have lower birth weight (2.1 vs.… Read more

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Prevalence of surgical-site infections and patterns of antimicrobial use in a large tertiary-care hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted in Vietnam on the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections or antimicrobial use. Thus, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) and to document antimicrobial use in surgical patients in a large healthcare facility in Vietnam.… Read more

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Serratia marcescens bacteremia traced to an infused narcotic

Abstract

BACKGROUND: From June 30, 1998, through March 21, 1999, several patients in the surgical intensive care unit of a hospital acquired Serratia marcescens bacteremia. We investigated this outbreak.

METHODS: A case was defined as the occurrence of S. marcescens bacteremia in any patient in the surgical intensive care unit during the period of the epidemic.… Read more

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Bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology outpatients: a new healthcare systems challenge

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a perceived increase in central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) among pediatric hematology-oncology outpatients.

DESIGN: A case-control study.

SETTING: A pediatric hematology-oncology outpatient clinic at Fresno Children’s Hospital.

PATIENTS: Pediatric hematology-oncology clinic outpatients with CVCs at Fresno Children’s Hospital between November 1994 and October 1997.… Read more

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The evolving world of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection surveillance and prevention: is your system as good as you think?

Abstract

Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 May;23(5):236-8

PMID: 12026146

The evolving world of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection surveillance and prevention: is your system as good as you think? was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Jarvis WR… Read more
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Vitamin A levels and immunity in humans

Abstract

In animal studies, vitamin A deficiency induces a shift from type 2 (humoral, Th2) to type 1 (cellular, Th1) cytokines; there are no similar data for humans. Control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections requires type 1 cytokine (cellular) immunity.… Read more

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[Incidence, microbial etiology and mortality associated with nosocomial bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit]

Abstract

Robles García MB, Orejas Rodríguez Arango G, Rey Galán C, Jarvis WR

An. Esp. Pediatr. 2002 Apr;56(4):364-6

PMID: 11927086

[Incidence, microbial etiology and mortality associated with nosocomial bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit] was last modified: April 1st, 2002 by Robles García MB, Orejas Rodríguez Arango G, Rey Galán C, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Age-related differences in cell-specific cytokine production by acutely ill Malawian patients

Abstract

Age-related changes in human cell-specific cytokine responses to acute illness have not been well examined. We therefore evaluated age-related differences in T, B and natural killer (NK) peripheral blood lymphocyte cytokine responses of 309 acutely ill hospitalized people in Malawi, Africa, < 1 month-61 years of age.… Read more

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A national point-prevalence survey of pediatric intensive care unit-acquired infections in the United States

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit-acquired infections, a major cause of morbidity in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients.

METHODS: Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals (n = 31) participated in a point-prevalence survey on August 4, 1999. Data collected for all PICU inpatients included demographics, infections, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes.… Read more

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Feasibility of national surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings

Abstract

This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system.

Manangan LP, Pearson ML, Tokars JI, Miller E, Jarvis WR

Emerging Infect.… Read more

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Would active surveillance cultures help control healthcare-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections?

Abstract

Farr BM, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 Feb;23(2):65-8

PMID: 11893150

Would active surveillance cultures help control healthcare-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections? was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Farr BM, Jarvis WR… Read more