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Benchmarking for prevention: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system experience

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality at hospitals in the United States. Surveillance of these infections identifies secular trends and provides data upon which prevention interventions can be based in order to improve patient safety. National surveillance of healthcare-associated infections was initiated in the United States in 1970.… Read more

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Improving water quality can reduce pyrogenic reactions associated with reuse of cardiac catheters

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of our preintervention investigation and subsequent 19-month three-phase intervention study designed to reduce pyrogenic reactions among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization using reprocessed catheters.

DESIGN: A case-control study for the preintervention period and a prospective cohort study for the intervention period.… Read more

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Vascular catheters inserted in the trenches versus guideline documents: can the discrepancies be resolved?

Abstract

Sherertz RJ, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003 Dec;24(12):887-9

PMID: 14700402

Vascular catheters inserted in the trenches versus guideline documents: can the discrepancies be resolved? was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Sherertz RJ, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Antibiotic use for emergency department patients with acute diarrhea: Prescribing practices, patient expectations, and patient satisfaction

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Physicians commonly prescribe antibiotics to meet patient expectations, even when antimicrobials are unnecessary. We evaluated factors emergency physicians consider in prescribing antibiotics to patients with diarrhea and examined patient expectations, physician-perceived patient expectations, and patient satisfaction.

METHODS: Adults and children presenting with acute diarrhea to 1 of 10 academic emergency departments (EDs) were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study.… Read more

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SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus

Abstract

LeDell K, Muto CA, Jarvis WR, Farr BM

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003 Sep;24(9):639-41

PMID: 14510243

SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by LeDell K, Muto CA, Jarvis WR, Farr BM… Read more
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Vancomycin use in hospitalized pediatric patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To assess vancomycin utilization at children’s hospitals, to determine risk factors for vancomycin use and length of therapy, and to facilitate adapting recommendations to optimize vancomycin prescribing practices in pediatric patients.

METHODS: Two surveys were conducted at Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals.… Read more

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Epidemiology of bloodstream infections in a bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated pediatric population in Malawi

Abstract

The risk of Mycobacterium bovis bloodstream infection (BSI) in bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains uncharacterized. We studied pediatric inpatients during the 1998 dry season in Malawi. After a detailed clinical evaluation, blood was drawn for culture and HIV testing.… Read more

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Multi-society guideline for reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

Abstract

Flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the care of patients with gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary disorders. Compliance with accepted guidelines for the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes between patients is critical to the safety and success of their use.… Read more

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Prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an outpatient clinic population

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in an outpatient population and to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization.

DESIGN: Surveillance cultures were performed during outpatient visits to identify S. aureus colonization. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization.… Read more

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Prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the time of hospital admission

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among patients presenting for hospital admission and to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization.

DESIGN: Surveillance cultures were performed at the time of hospital admission to identify patients colonized with S.… Read more

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Dinosaurs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and infection control personnel: survival through translating science into prevention

Abstract

Jarvis WR, Ostrowsky B

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003 Jun;24(6):392-6

PMID: 12828313

Dinosaurs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and infection control personnel: survival through translating science into prevention was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Jarvis WR, Ostrowsky B… Read more
Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infection control programs were created three decades ago to control antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections, but there has been little evidence of control in most facilities. After long, steady increases of MRSA and VRE infections in NNIS System hospitals, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Board of Directors made reducing antibiotic-resistant infections a strategic SHEA goal in January 2000.… Read more

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Are there regional variations in the diagnosis, surveillance, and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the way healthcare facilities (HCFs) diagnose, survey, and control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

DESIGN: Questionnaire.

SETTING: Ninety HCFs in 30 countries.

RESULTS: Evaluation of susceptibility testing methods showed that 8 laboratories (9%) used oxacillin disks with antimicrobial content different from the one recommended, 12 (13%) did not determine MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin, and 4 (4.5%) reported instances of isolation of vancomycin-resistant S.… Read more

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Detection of bloodstream pathogens in a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated pediatric population in Malawi: a pilot study

Abstract

Children in Malawi receive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination within the first 3 days of life. Thus, we hypothesized that Malawian children infected with the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1) might be particularly vulnerable to dissemination of the BCG Mycobacterium bovis strain with which they were vaccinated.… Read more

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Epidemiological and microbiological characterization of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, United States, 1997-2001

Abstract

Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility (SA-RVS; minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], or=4 microg/mL), including vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA; MIC, 8 microg/mL), are a new clinical and public health dilemma. Prospective surveillance and a nested case-control study of patients in the United States infected with SA-RVS was conduced from March 1999 through December 2000.… Read more