Of 33,111 patients admitted to a large hospital in Vietnam from November 2000 through July 2001, a total of 303 were undergoing hemodialysis and had pyrogenic reactions (ie, fever and/or rigors). Ten case patients (3.3%) had documented bacteremia; pathogens were largely waterborne microorganisms. Pyrogenic reactions in case patients might have occurred because of suboptimal water quality or inadequate dialyzer reprocessing procedures.
Archibald LK, Khoi NN, Jarvis WR, Reller LB, Cam PD, Thu TA, Hung NV
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006 Apr;27(4):424-6