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Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium prospective surveillance study from January 2004 to December 2009 in 33 pediatric intensive care units of 16 countries and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated health care-associated infection rates. Additionally, we aim to compare these findings with the results of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network annual report to show the differences between developed and developing countries regarding device-associated health care-associated infection rates.

PATIENTS: A prospective cohort, active device-associated health care-associated infection surveillance study was conducted on 23,700 patients in International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium pediatric intensive care units.

METHODS: The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Data collection was performed in the participating intensive care units. Data uploading and analyses were conducted at International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium headquarters on proprietary software. Device-associated health care-associated infection rates were recorded by applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network device-associated infection definitions, and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated infection risk was evaluated.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Central line-associated bloodstream infection rates were similar in private, public, or academic hospitals (7.3 vs. 8.4 central line-associated bloodstream infection per 1,000 catheter-days [p < .35 vs. 8.2; p < .42]). Central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in lower middle-income countries were higher than low-income countries or upper middle-income countries (12.2 vs. 5.5 central line-associated bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter-days [p < .02 vs. 7.0; p < .001]). Catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were similar in academic, public and private hospitals: (4.2 vs. 5.2 catheter-associated urinary tract infection per 1,000 catheter-days [p = .41 vs. 3.0; p = .195]). Catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were higher in lower middle-income countries than low-income countries or upper middle-income countries (5.9 vs. 0.6 catheter-associated urinary tract infection per 1,000 catheter-days [p < .004 vs. 3.7; p < .01]). Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in academic hospitals were higher than private or public hospitals: (8.3 vs. 3.5 ventilator-associated pneumonias per 1,000 ventilator-days [p < .001 vs. 4.7; p < .001]). Lower middle-income countries had higher ventilator-associated pneumonia rates than low-income countries or upper middle-income countries: (9.0 vs. 0.5 per 1,000 ventilator-days [p < .001 vs. 5.4; p < .001]). Hand hygiene compliance rates were higher in public than academic or private hospitals (65.2% vs. 54.8% [p < .001 vs. 13.3%; p < .01]).

CONCLUSIONS: Country socioeconomic level influence device-associated infection rates in developing countries and need to be considered when comparing device-associated infections from one country to another.

Rosenthal VD, Jarvis WR, Jamulitrat S, Silva CP, Ramachandran B, Dueñas L, Gurskis V, Ersoz G, Novales MG, Khader IA, Ammar K, Guzmán NB, Navoa-Ng JA, Seliem ZS, Espinoza TA, Meng CY, Jayatilleke K,

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2012 Jul;13(4):399-406

PMID: 22596065

Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Rosenthal VD, Jarvis WR, Jamulitrat S, Silva CP, Ramachandran B, Dueñas L, Gurskis V, Ersoz G, Novales MG, Khader IA, Ammar K, Guzmán NB, Navoa-Ng JA, Seliem ZS, Espinoza TA, Meng CY, Jayatilleke K,