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Automated Evaluation of AIDS Messages with High‐Risk, Low‐Literacy Audiences

Abstract

A series of televised public service announcements (PSAs) about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was evaluated with 100 black participants attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Since the literacy level of the participants was suspected to be low, questions were administered orally and an electronic data collection technique was used which permitted the participants to push buttons, as opposed to speaking or writing responses.… Read more

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Addressing the public’s concerns about human immunodeficiency virus transmission in health-care settings

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The 1990 report of a cluster of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with a Florida dentist with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome attracted considerable media coverage and legislative attention. A number of polls found that the public favored mandatory HIV-antibody testing of health-care workers.… Read more

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Educating Young Adults About HIV and AIDS: the Impact of Direct Response Television Public Service Advertising

ABSTRACT Limited resources combined with a desire to reach as many people as possible often make direct response public service announcements an important tool in educational campaigns. To understand the impact of direct-response TV PSAs, and find ways to increase their effectiveness, this study examined 1) the effects of a highly targeted HIV prevention message on young adults’ knowledge, perceptions, and intentions; and 2) whether altering two PSA elements, the telephone number used and the length of time it was displayed, would affect viewers’ recall and intention responses.  … Read more

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Potential use of mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users with AIDS prevention messages

Abstract

To access the potential of using the mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users (IVDUs) with AIDS prevention messages,

we: 1) questioned 353 participants in a Baltimore IVDU cohort study on their media use and sources of AIDS information, 2) analyzed data on Baltimore AIDS public service announcement (PSA) airings during a 3-month period, and 3) discussed with media executives their willingness to air a variety of potential AIDS messages.… Read more

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Using indices to differentiate dimensions of knowledge regarding modes of HIV transmission in the U.S. population, 1987-1989

Abstract

The number of HIV-infected individuals is increasing, making it important for the public to understand not only how HIV is transmitted but also the lack of transmission risk associated with casual contact. Using CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics National Health Interview Survey, we divided modes of transmission items into two areas of knowledge: “True Transmission” and “False Transmission.” Items were recoded with scores from 3 for the most correct response to 0 for the most incorrect response for each of three items related to true and each of eight items related to false transmission.… Read more

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The pediatrician’s role in encouraging parent-child communication about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We explored whether communication from pediatrician to parent to child might assist in education about and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by comparing parents of children aged 10 through 17 years who did discuss acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with their children with parents of children aged 10 through 17 years who did not discuss AIDS with their children.… Read more

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Recall of AIDS public service announcements and their impact on the ranking of AIDS as a national problem

Abstract

The efficacy of two public service announcements from Phase V of the “America Responds to AIDS” (ARTA) campaign was assessed at two sites. Participants were randomly assigned to view a local news program, one with an ARTA public service announcement appearing six times and the other with no AIDS public service announcements.… Read more

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Paid advertising for AIDS prevention–would the ends justify the means?

Abstract

An examination by the Centers for Disease Control and the Research Triangle Institute concluded that “hard-to-reach” populations could be reached with AIDS prevention messages through the broadcast and print media and that a study should be undertaken to assess whether paid placement of these messages could have an effect on HIV-related behaviors.… Read more

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A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC’s National AIDS Information and Education Program

Abstract

The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency’s media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome.… Read more

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Evaluating the “America Responds to AIDS” Campaign

Abstract

Social marketing is “the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea or practice in a target group.” It has existed in the United States for over a century and at various times has focused on such health-related behaviors as tobacco use, alcohol and drug use, control of hypertension, cancer screening, seat belt use, and-recently-behaviors placing a person at risk for HIV infection or a sexually transmitted disease.… Read more

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Abuse, neglect, and the HIV-infected child

Abstract

The effect of HIV on child abuse prevention must be considered on three different levels. The first consists of indirect effects: the extent to which this infection will be a burden on the health care, social service, and public assistance systems in this and other countries, leading to decreasing resources for child abuse prevention.   … Read more

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Parenting Your Premature Baby

Jason J, van der Meer A. Holt Publishing Company, NY, NY, 1989.

Above book was published in paperback by Dell Publishing Company, New York, NY in June, 1990. German publication rights for above book given in 1991.

Parenting Your Premature Baby was cited in the Library Journal as one of the best lay medical books for public libraries (1988-89).… Read more

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Hemophiliac patient’s knowledge and educational needs concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Abstract

The Patient Knowledge Assessment Study (PKAS) was conducted among 107 male hemophilic patients, aged 15 to 67 years, at 19 hemophilia treatment centers (HTC). Participants were given a 30-item questionnaire concerning the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the groups at risk, and modes of transmission.… Read more

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An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes

Jason JM, McGrady GA.

In: Clinical Obstetrics – A Public Health Perspective.  B P Sachs & D Acker (eds).  PSG, Inc. Boston, MA, 1985.

ISBN 0-88416-513-2

An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes was last modified: October 20th, 2015 by Jason JM, McGrady GA… Read more
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Mortality and infectious disease associated with infant-feeding practices in developing countries

Abstract

This review examines the available studies bear­ing on the relation between infant-feeding mode and infectious illness in the populations of less­ developed countries.  In this review we will address the following key questions: (1) whether the method of infant feeding (breast v other) is associated with differences in rates of mortality, both overall and infectious, and in rates of infectious morbidity in less-developed countries; (2) whether differences exist between breast-feeding and other feeding methods in terms of infection rates for specific pathogens; and (3) whether the evidence is strong enough to suggest that any association is a causal one, ie, that the effect noted is actually caused by breast-feeding rather than other factors associated with rates of illness.  … Read more