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Prevention of invasive Cronobacter infections in young infants fed powdered infant formulas

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive Cronobacter infection is rare, devastating, and epidemiologically/microbiologically linked to powdered infant formulas (PIFs). In 2002-2004, the US Food and Drug Administration advised health care professionals to minimize PIF and powdered human milk fortifier (HMF)’s preparation, feeding, and storage times and avoid feeding them to hospitalized premature or immunocompromised neonates.… Read more

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Clinical predictors of bloodstream infections and mortality in hospitalized Malawian children

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major cause of pediatric mortality. Because of limited resources and facilities in these developing countries, treatment often must be based solely on clinical observations and patient history and includes the use of broad spectrum antimicrobials, a factor in the emergence of antibiotic resistance.… Read more

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Vitamin A levels and immunity in humans

Abstract

In animal studies, vitamin A deficiency induces a shift from type 2 (humoral, Th2) to type 1 (cellular, Th1) cytokines; there are no similar data for humans. Control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections requires type 1 cytokine (cellular) immunity.… Read more

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Comparison of serum and cell-specific cytokines in humans

Abstract

Cytokines function at the cellular, microenvironmental level, but human cytokine assessment is most commonly done at the macro level, by measuring serum cytokines. The relationships between serum and cellular cytokines, if there are any, are undefined. In a study of hospitalized patients in Malawi, we compared cytometrically assessed, cell-specific cytokine data to serum interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in 16 children and 71 (IL-2, -4, -6, -10) or 159 (IL-8, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) adults, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Pearson’s (r(p)) and Spearman’s (r(s)) rank correlations.… Read more

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Cytokines and malaria parasitemia

Abstract

The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines may be important in malaria presentation and outcome. Malaria tends to be more severe in children than in adults, presumably because partial immunity develops with age. However, the full nature of, and age-related differences in, anti-malarial immunity are unknown.… Read more

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Kawasaki disease and the T-cell antigen receptor

Abstract

We investigated the evidence for an infectious etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology, by assessing the effects of KD on the T cell antigen receptor variable beta region families (V beta). Using 3-color flow cytometry, we studied KD patients pre- and post-intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) therapy and at > 40 days post therapy, additionally comparing them to matched pediatric control patients (PCC) and their own healthy parents (one parent/KD child).… Read more

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Immunoregulatory changes in Kawasaki disease

Abstract

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology, occurring in young children and treated with intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) to prevent significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. We studied KD patients pre- and post-IVIG therapy and at >40 days posttherapy, additionally comparing them with matched pediatric control patients and parents.… Read more

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HIV antigens and T-cell receptor variable beta chain families

Abstract

The authors investigated whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has restrictive effects on the variable region of the beta chain (V beta) of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), by in vitro cultivation of non-HIV-infected peripheral blood lymphocytes with one of six HIV antigens or heat-inactivated whole virus (HIV-HI).… Read more

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Evidence for a shift from a type I lymphocyte pattern with HIV disease progression. Hemophilia Growth and Development Study

Abstract

Whether a shift from a type I (cell mediated) immune profile occurs with progressive HIV-related immune dysfunction is a matter of heated debate.

We analyzed data for 333 HIV antibody-positive (HIV+) and -negative (HIV-) hemophilic children/adolescents, to examine whether the relationships among immunologic parameters and vaccine-related serology supported a shift with advancing HIV infection.… Read more

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Immune and serologic profiles of HIV-infected and noninfected hemophilic children and adolescents. Hemophilia Growth and Development Study Group

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To assess relationships among the effects of HIV on hemophilic children and adolescents’ immunologic parameters and vaccine-related serology.

METHODS: We analyzed data from extensive baseline immunologic evaluations of 207 HIV antibody-positive (HIV+) and 126 HIV antibody-negative (HIV-) hemophilic children and adolescents.… Read more

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Hemophilia growth and development study. Design, methods, and entry data

Abstract

PURPOSE: The study design, research questions, and baseline data are presented from a multicenter longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on three areas of functioning in children and adolescents with hemophilia: physical growth and sexual maturation, immune function, and neurological and neuropsychological functioning.… Read more

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Breast-feeding in 1991

Abstract

With increasing urbanization and greater entry of women into the workforce in both

undeveloped

 

and developed countries, it behooves physicians to remember that our encouragement of breast-feeding often conflicts with the practical imperatives faced by many young mothers. We should continue to encourage breast-feeding, but in individual instances this policy can safely be tempered with realism.… Read more

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Infectious disease-related deaths of low birth weight infants, United States, 1968 to 1982

Abstract

Infant mortality rates in the United States are higher than in any other developed country. Low birth weight (LBW) is the primary determinant of infant mortality.

 

Despite city, state, and federal programs to prevent LBW, decreases in infant mortality in the 1980s appear to be largely secondary to improved survival of LBW infants rather than to a decline in the rate of LBW births.… Read more

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Infectious diseases: preventable causes of infant mortality

Abstract

After almost a century of improvement, the rate of decrease in US infant mortality rates began to level off during the period of 1982 to 1984. Rates actually increased in some states. Because much of the decline in infant mortality in this century can be attributed to advances in infectious disease treatment and prevention programs, we evaluated the current impact of infectious diseases on infant mortality.… Read more

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The Role of Parvovirus B19 in Aplastic Crisis and Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)

Abstract

In 1984, simultaneous outbreaks of aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum occurred in northeastern Ohio. Sera were analyzed from 26 patients with aplastic crisis: 24 had IgM specific for parvovirus B19, five had Bl9-like particles by electron microscopy, and 13 had DNA from B19; no sera from 33 controls had evidence of recent infection with B19 (P< .0001).… Read more

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An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes

Jason JM, McGrady GA.

In: Clinical Obstetrics – A Public Health Perspective.  B P Sachs & D Acker (eds).  PSG, Inc. Boston, MA, 1985.

ISBN 0-88416-513-2

An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes was last modified: October 20th, 2015 by Jason JM, McGrady GA… Read more
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Mortality and infectious disease associated with infant-feeding practices in developing countries

Abstract

This review examines the available studies bear­ing on the relation between infant-feeding mode and infectious illness in the populations of less­ developed countries.  In this review we will address the following key questions: (1) whether the method of infant feeding (breast v other) is associated with differences in rates of mortality, both overall and infectious, and in rates of infectious morbidity in less-developed countries; (2) whether differences exist between breast-feeding and other feeding methods in terms of infection rates for specific pathogens; and (3) whether the evidence is strong enough to suggest that any association is a causal one, ie, that the effect noted is actually caused by breast-feeding rather than other factors associated with rates of illness.  … Read more