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Community-acquired, non-occupational needlestick injuries treated in US Emergency Departments

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The escalating number of persons self-injecting medications, predominantly insulin, has generated concerns that the public is at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections from discarded needles/syringes. Communities have developed disposal guidelines but a debate continues over the need for further legislation and/or at-home safety devices.… Read more

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Automated Evaluation of AIDS Messages with High‐Risk, Low‐Literacy Audiences

Abstract

A series of televised public service announcements (PSAs) about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was evaluated with 100 black participants attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Since the literacy level of the participants was suspected to be low, questions were administered orally and an electronic data collection technique was used which permitted the participants to push buttons, as opposed to speaking or writing responses.… Read more

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Addressing the public’s concerns about human immunodeficiency virus transmission in health-care settings

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The 1990 report of a cluster of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with a Florida dentist with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome attracted considerable media coverage and legislative attention. A number of polls found that the public favored mandatory HIV-antibody testing of health-care workers.… Read more

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Educating Young Adults About HIV and AIDS: the Impact of Direct Response Television Public Service Advertising

ABSTRACT Limited resources combined with a desire to reach as many people as possible often make direct response public service announcements an important tool in educational campaigns. To understand the impact of direct-response TV PSAs, and find ways to increase their effectiveness, this study examined 1) the effects of a highly targeted HIV prevention message on young adults’ knowledge, perceptions, and intentions; and 2) whether altering two PSA elements, the telephone number used and the length of time it was displayed, would affect viewers’ recall and intention responses.  … Read more

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Potential use of mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users with AIDS prevention messages

Abstract

To access the potential of using the mass media to reach urban intravenous drug users (IVDUs) with AIDS prevention messages,

we: 1) questioned 353 participants in a Baltimore IVDU cohort study on their media use and sources of AIDS information, 2) analyzed data on Baltimore AIDS public service announcement (PSA) airings during a 3-month period, and 3) discussed with media executives their willingness to air a variety of potential AIDS messages.… Read more

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The pediatrician’s role in encouraging parent-child communication about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We explored whether communication from pediatrician to parent to child might assist in education about and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by comparing parents of children aged 10 through 17 years who did discuss acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with their children with parents of children aged 10 through 17 years who did not discuss AIDS with their children.… Read more

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Paid advertising for AIDS prevention–would the ends justify the means?

Abstract

An examination by the Centers for Disease Control and the Research Triangle Institute concluded that “hard-to-reach” populations could be reached with AIDS prevention messages through the broadcast and print media and that a study should be undertaken to assess whether paid placement of these messages could have an effect on HIV-related behaviors.… Read more

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A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC’s National AIDS Information and Education Program

Abstract

The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency’s media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome.… Read more

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Evaluating the “America Responds to AIDS” Campaign

Abstract

Social marketing is “the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea or practice in a target group.” It has existed in the United States for over a century and at various times has focused on such health-related behaviors as tobacco use, alcohol and drug use, control of hypertension, cancer screening, seat belt use, and-recently-behaviors placing a person at risk for HIV infection or a sexually transmitted disease.… Read more

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Absence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophilic men

Abstract

Concern for transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) infection to recipients of infected cellular blood products has prompted development of tests to eliminate blood units with HTLV-I antibodies. Most hemophilic men from the United States became infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) before HIV donor screening and before blood products were processed to inactivate the virus.… Read more

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Infectious disease-related deaths of low birth weight infants, United States, 1968 to 1982

Abstract

Infant mortality rates in the United States are higher than in any other developed country. Low birth weight (LBW) is the primary determinant of infant mortality.

 

Despite city, state, and federal programs to prevent LBW, decreases in infant mortality in the 1980s appear to be largely secondary to improved survival of LBW infants rather than to a decline in the rate of LBW births.… Read more

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Risk of developing AIDS in HIV-infected cohorts of hemophilic and homosexual men

Abstract

The latency period and/or incidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may differ in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus by different routes or having different “cofactors.” We compared 79 hemophilic men in Pennsylvania and 117 homosexual and bisexual men in California, all having known dates of infection and long postinfection observation periods, to examine these hypotheses.… Read more

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Sex practice correlates of human immunodeficiency virus transmission and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome incidence in heterosexual partners and offspring of U.S. hemophilic men

Abstract

We assessed the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from heterosexual seropositive hemophilic men to their female sex partners through an HIV serosurvey and questionnaire study conducted during 1984-1987. Five percent of 21 female partners of asymptomatic men and 11% of 35 partners of HIV-symptomatic (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS], AIDS-related complex [ARC], peripheral generalized lymphadenopathy [PGL]) hemophilic men had been infected when first tested.… Read more

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HIV and hemophilic children’s growth

Abstract

The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) often has profound effects on growth; however, the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on asymptomatic children’s growth are unknown. Before heat inactivation/HIV donor screening of factor concentrates, many hemophilic children became infected with HIV.… Read more

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection in hemophilic children

Abstract

The following groups were compared: (1) children less than 18 years old who have hemophilia-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with other children with AIDS and with adults who have hemophilia-associated AIDS and (2) asymptomatic HIV-infected hemophilic children with asymptomatic HIV-infected hemophilic adults.… Read more

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Racial differences in care of patients with hemophilia

Abstract

Hemophilia treatment centers were first established in the mid­-1970s to provide optimal and coordinated medical care to patients with the disorder. Our study suggests that blacks with hemophilia may be receiving less coordinated care and less appropriate blood­ product therapy than whites with hemophilia.… Read more

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Hemophilia-associated AIDS in the United States, 1981 to September 1987

Abstract

Between January 1, 1981 and September 4, 1987, 407 cases of hemophilia-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The number of cases diagnosed each year nearly doubled, except in 1986, when cases increased only 50 per cent.… Read more

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Potential effect of revising the CDC surveillance case definition for AIDS

Abstract

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) revised the surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in August, 1987. To determine the impact of this revision, information was extracted from the medical charts of the 630 patients receiving comprehensive medical care as of 1980 at 6 haemophilia treatment centres, and who were therefore likely to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).… Read more

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The Epidemiology of AIDS

Abstract

Cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported in June and July of 1981, as clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among homosexual men. Since then, epidemiologic surveillance has been used by investigators and public health professionals to identify that an outbreak existed, to characterize the outbreak, and to determine and predict its extent and course.… Read more

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Hemophiliac patient’s knowledge and educational needs concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Abstract

The Patient Knowledge Assessment Study (PKAS) was conducted among 107 male hemophilic patients, aged 15 to 67 years, at 19 hemophilia treatment centers (HTC). Participants were given a 30-item questionnaire concerning the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the groups at risk, and modes of transmission.… Read more

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Infectious diseases: preventable causes of infant mortality

Abstract

After almost a century of improvement, the rate of decrease in US infant mortality rates began to level off during the period of 1982 to 1984. Rates actually increased in some states. Because much of the decline in infant mortality in this century can be attributed to advances in infectious disease treatment and prevention programs, we evaluated the current impact of infectious diseases on infant mortality.… Read more

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The course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States hemophilia population

Abstract

The time course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as it has occurred in the US hemophilia population is examined using surveillance data collected by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). These data indicate that the epidemic course in hemophiliacs is distinguishable from that in the homosexual/bisexual and intravenous drug-using populations in at least one respect–the epidemic in the hemophilia population is characterized by a lack of consistent increase in the number of new AIDS cases in successive time intervals.… Read more

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Effects of exposure to factor concentrates containing donations from identified AIDS patients. A matched cohort study

Abstract

We compared recipients of eight lots of factors VIII and IX voluntarily withdrawn from distribution because one donor was known to have subsequently developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a nonexposed cohort matched by age, sex, and factor use. The factor VIII recipient cohorts did not differ in prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (exposed, 75%; nonexposed, 86%), T-cell subset numbers (median: exposed, 619 T-helper cells per cubic millimeter; nonexposed, 659 T-helper cells per cubic millimeter), T-helper to T-suppressor ratios, or immunoglobulin levels.… Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV-seronegative, virus-negative sexual partners and household contacts of hemophiliacs

Abstract

Public concern about the transmissibility of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) has been heightened by several reports suggesting the existence of an antibody-negative, virus-positive state in some asymptomatic sex partners of persons who are antibody-positive.  We recently evaluated 88 household members and/or sex partners of persons with hemophilia and found that only two nonhemophiliacs were HTLV-III/LAV antibody-positive.  … Read more

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Conjugal transmission of HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy in Christmas disease

Abstract

The risk of conjugal transmission of the HTLV-III/LAV virus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in patients with hemophilia is unknown.  To date, only a few   instances of proven exposure to HTLV-III have been reported among sexual or family contacts of   patients with hemophilia.  … Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV antibody and immune status of household contacts and sexual partners of persons with hemophilia

Abstract

We evaluated the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody and immune status of 88 persons living with and/or sexual partners of 43 hemophiliacs, 12 of whom had AIDS, five of whom had AIDS-related complex (ARC), 17 of whom were clinically well but HTLV-III/LAV antibody positive, and nine of whom were well and HTLV-III/LAV antibody negative.… Read more

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HTLV-III exposure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Abstract

To the Editor: There have been no confirmed occupation-related cases of AIDS in health care workers in the United States. We have been following two nurses who participated in mouth-to-mouth re­suscitation of a patient with the AIDS-related complex, who was positive for human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type- III/lymphade­nopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), and we here report their seronegativity nine months after exposure.… Read more

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An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes

Jason JM, McGrady GA.

In: Clinical Obstetrics – A Public Health Perspective.  B P Sachs & D Acker (eds).  PSG, Inc. Boston, MA, 1985.

ISBN 0-88416-513-2

An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes was last modified: October 20th, 2015 by Jason JM, McGrady GA… Read more
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HTLV-III/LAV antibody status of spouses and household contacts assisting in home infusion of hemophilia patients

Abstract

Thirty-four adult and pediatric hemophilia A and B patients and 50 nonhemophilic members belonging to 28 families were enrolled in August 1984 in a study of human T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody status and T cell subpopulation numbers.… Read more

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HTLV-I antibody status in hemophilia patients treated with factor concentrates prepared from U.S. plasma sources and in hemophilia patients with AIDS

Abstract

Serum samples from 85 Austrian hemophilia patients treated with lyophilized factor concentrates prepared from U.S. plasma sources, 24 hemophilia patients from Georgia on a home therapy program with factor concentrates, and 10 U.S. hemophilia patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were analyzed by two different methods for the presence of antibodies to the major internal antigen of human T-cell leukemia virus I (HTLV-I) p24.… Read more

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Immune status of blood product recipients

Abstract

Persons with hemophilia are at risk of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and clinically asymptomatic hemophiliacs have shown a high incidence of AIDS-like immune abnormalities, facts leading to speculation that many hemophiliacs have been exposed to the AIDS agent through their blood products.… Read more

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hemophiliacs

Abstract

From mid-1977 to mid-1983 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has received reports of more than 2,100 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These cases had either biopsy-confirmed Kaposi’s sarcoma or a biopsy or culture confirmed life-threatening opportunistic infection, without an identifiable cause of immunosuppression.… Read more

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Clinical aspects of child abuse

Jason J

In:  Current Diagnosis, 7th edition, R.B. Conn, editor.  W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, 1984.

 

Clinical aspects of child abuse was last modified: October 17th, 2015 by Jason J… Read more
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Perspective comprehension of AIDS

Evatt BL, Jason J

Proc 4th Int Symp HT 1984; p 97‑102.

Perspective comprehension of AIDS was last modified: October 17th, 2015 by Evatt BL, Jason J… Read more
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Mortality and infectious disease associated with infant-feeding practices in developing countries

Abstract

This review examines the available studies bear­ing on the relation between infant-feeding mode and infectious illness in the populations of less­ developed countries.  In this review we will address the following key questions: (1) whether the method of infant feeding (breast v other) is associated with differences in rates of mortality, both overall and infectious, and in rates of infectious morbidity in less-developed countries; (2) whether differences exist between breast-feeding and other feeding methods in terms of infection rates for specific pathogens; and (3) whether the evidence is strong enough to suggest that any association is a causal one, ie, that the effect noted is actually caused by breast-feeding rather than other factors associated with rates of illness.  … Read more

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Centers for Disease Control and the epidemiology of violence

Abstract

Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The Center for Health Promotion and Education, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has begun to apply epidemiologic techniques to study the problems of child abuse, child homicide, homicide, and suicide.… Read more

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hemophiliacs

Abstract

From mid-1977 to mid-1983 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has received reports of more than 2,100 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These cases had either biopsy confirmed Kaposi’s sarcoma

or a biopsy or culture confirmed life-threatening opportunistic infection, without an identifiable cause of immunosuppression.… Read more

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Homicide as a cause of pediatric mortality in the United States

Abstract

Homicide is a major cause of pediatric mortality. National law enforcement data were analyzed to characterize and differentiate neonaticide, infanticide, filicide, and overall child homicide. Results include the following: Neonaticides often involved parents or unidentified perpetrators and occurred proportionately more in rural areas than did other types of child homicide.… Read more

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Child homicide spectrum

Abstract

Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide.… Read more

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Epidemiologic characteristics of primary homicides in the United States

Abstract

Homicide is one of the five leading causes of death for all persons 1-44 years of age. Over half of the homicides occurring in 1979 did not involve the perpetration of another crime. The authors have defined these as primary homicides and suggest that these deaths require the formulation of public health and social services prevention strategies.… Read more

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A comparison of primary and secondary homicides in the United States

Abstract

In 1979, over 20,000 people in the United States were victims of homicide, but public health agencies have not yet defined their role in its prevention. Role definition might begin with differentiating various forms of homicide, so the authors used data on all homicides reported by law enforcement agencies for 1976-1979 to determine whether homicides that did not occur during the perpetration of another crime (primary homicides) differ from those that occurred during the perpetration of another crime (secondary homicides).… Read more

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Underrecording of infant homicide in the United States

Abstract

Homicide rates for infants dropped suddenly between 1967 and 1969. The abrupt nature of this decline suggested the change was artifactual. Investigation suggests that two classification revisions instituted at this time were causes of this decline: changes in related codes set forth in the Eighth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted, and revision of the standard certificate of death in 1968.… Read more

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Fatal child abuse in Georgia: the epidemiology of severe physical child abuse

Abstract

Decisions about the occurrence of child abuse are increasingly difficult to make because concepts of what qualifies as reportable child abuse may be broadening.

We examined this question by comparing 51 fatal child abuse cases occurring in Georgia between July 1975 and December 1979 to non-fatal cases and to the Georgia population.… Read more

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Child abuse in Georgia: a method to evaluate risk factors and reporting bias

Abstract

From July 1975 through December 1979, the Georgia Department of Protective Services Central Registry recorded population-based data on confirmed, non-confirmable, and ruled-out child abuse reports. We propose that reporting biases are reflected in the differential characteristics of confirmed and ruled-out reports of child abuse.… Read more

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Sexually Abused Children and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Abstract

Sexual  abuse  of  children  is  a  complex  problem that has had, until recently, received only limited recognition and discussion in the pediatric literature. The reasons for this are twofold. First, the magnitude of the problem is unrecognized. Sexual child abuse is grossly underreported, with a true incidence perhaps 10-fold higher than the reported incidence.… Read more

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Epidemiologic differences between sexual and physical child abuse

Abstract

Sexual and physical child abuse are assumed to differ; however, these differences have not been well characterized epidemiologically. Furthermore, despite assumed differences, these types of abuse are often analyzed as one entity. This can have significant effects on assessment of risk and recommendations for intervention.… Read more