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Peripheral blood cell-specific cytokines in persons with untreated HIV infection in Malawi, Africa

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, Africa, because of its many effects on the immune system. Immune cells communicate through cytokines; therefore, we examined the relationships between HIV serostatus and cell-specific cytokine production for 40 asymptomatic, employed adults and 312 acutely ill, hospitalized patients in Malawi.… Read more

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Demographic and immune correlates of human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity in Malawi, Africa

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the USA, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and HIV infection. We examined HHV-8 seroprevalence in a Malawian cohort, and assessed its relationship with HIV, KS, demographic characteristics, and immune findings.

METHODS: In 1997 and 1998, blood samples were obtained from 272 hospitalized Malawian patients, for whom demographic information was obtained, and 24 healthy volunteers without demographic data.… Read more

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Clinical and immune impact of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination scarring

Abstract

The World Health Organization recommends Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence. BCG’s clinical and immune effects, not necessarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific, are unclear. BCG vaccine scarring often is used as a surrogate marker of vaccination or of effective vaccination.… Read more

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Spontaneous cytokine production and its effect on induced production

Abstract

Cytokines regulate cellular immune activity and are produced by a variety of cells, especially lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. Multiparameter flow cytometry is often used to examine cell-specific cytokine production after in vitro phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin induction, with brefeldin A or other agents added to inhibit protein secretion.… Read more

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Vitamin A levels and immunity in humans

Abstract

In animal studies, vitamin A deficiency induces a shift from type 2 (humoral, Th2) to type 1 (cellular, Th1) cytokines; there are no similar data for humans. Control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections requires type 1 cytokine (cellular) immunity.… Read more

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Age-related differences in cell-specific cytokine production by acutely ill Malawian patients

Abstract

Age-related changes in human cell-specific cytokine responses to acute illness have not been well examined. We therefore evaluated age-related differences in T, B and natural killer (NK) peripheral blood lymphocyte cytokine responses of 309 acutely ill hospitalized people in Malawi, Africa, < 1 month-61 years of age.… Read more

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The effects of iron deficiency on lymphocyte cytokine production and activation: preservation of hepatic iron but not at all cost

Abstract

Worldwide, over 40% of children have iron deficiency anaemia, frequently associated with infections. Certain cytokines are involved in both immune activation/response to infection and iron transport/metabolism. We therefore assessed the relations among iron deficiency, cytokine production and lymphocyte activation markers in 142 hospitalized Malawian children.… Read more

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Comparison of serum and cell-specific cytokines in humans

Abstract

Cytokines function at the cellular, microenvironmental level, but human cytokine assessment is most commonly done at the macro level, by measuring serum cytokines. The relationships between serum and cellular cytokines, if there are any, are undefined. In a study of hospitalized patients in Malawi, we compared cytometrically assessed, cell-specific cytokine data to serum interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in 16 children and 71 (IL-2, -4, -6, -10) or 159 (IL-8, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) adults, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Pearson’s (r(p)) and Spearman’s (r(s)) rank correlations.… Read more

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Intracellular cytokines in the acute response to highly active antiretroviral therapy

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is usually associated with a rapid decline in HIV plasma RNA levels and a gradual increase in CD4 T cells. We examined whether changes in cytokine production and profile precede other immunological changes and whether these might occur in temporal association with plasma HIV RNA changes.… Read more

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Cytokines and malaria parasitemia

Abstract

The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines may be important in malaria presentation and outcome. Malaria tends to be more severe in children than in adults, presumably because partial immunity develops with age. However, the full nature of, and age-related differences in, anti-malarial immunity are unknown.… Read more

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Modulation of CD8 and CD3 by HIV or HIV antigens

Abstract

To investigate whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-1 antigens modulate surface and cytoplasmic CD8 or CD3, as well as CD4, we used cell permeabilization reagents, surface/cytoplasmic fluorescent staining, multiparameter flow cytometric techniques and an in vitro culture system in which relatively few lymphocytes are actively infected with HIV.… Read more

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Natural T, gammadelta, and NK cells in mycobacterial, Salmonella, and human immunodeficiency virus infections

Abstract

NK cells, gammadelta T cell antigen receptor chain-positive cells, and CD3(+)CD16/56(+) (natural T [NT]) cells are involved in innate immunity and immunoregulation; however, their role in clinical infection is not well defined. Cytofluorometric analysis was used to examine peripheral blood from bacteremic, nonbacteremic, and healthy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative persons in Malawi, Africa.… Read more

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Mitogen-induced modulation of CD3, CD4, and CD8

Abstract

It is not clear whether CD3 contacts CD4 or CD8 directly, nor have the regulation and interregulation of expression of these three receptor molecules been determined. We explored these issues by first stimulating human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro with three well-characterized T-cell receptor-directed mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA], concanavalin A [ConA], and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody [anti-CD3]) and then using multiparameter flow cytometric techniques to investigate modulation of surface (sur) and cytoplasmic (c) CD3, CD4, and CD8.… Read more

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Immune determinants of organism and outcome in febrile hospitalized Thai patients with bloodstream infections

Abstract

Opportunistic infections (OI) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Immune cell and cytokine profiles may be related to the type and course of OI and to the OI-HIV interaction. Examining cell-specific cytokine production ex vivo has only recently become feasible.… Read more

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Immunoregulatory changes in Kawasaki disease

Abstract

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology, occurring in young children and treated with intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) to prevent significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. We studied KD patients pre- and post-IVIG therapy and at >40 days posttherapy, additionally comparing them with matched pediatric control patients and parents.… Read more

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Single-cell cytokine profiles in normal humans: comparison of flow cytometric reagents and stimulation protocols

Abstract

Cytokines are produced and function at a micro environmental level: intracellular assessment has only recently become practically feasible. We used 3-color flow cytometry to examine surface and cytoplasmic antigens on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 18 normal donors, assessing the applicability/comparability of various directly conjugated anti-human cytokine reagents and stimulation protocols using separated cells or whole blood preparations.… Read more

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In vitro cultivation of nonlymphoid thymic cells: morphological and immunological characterization

Abstract

Nonlymphoid thymic elements play an important role in T-lymphocyte development, especially in the development of recognition of transplantation antigens (H-2 in the mouse). Understanding this process will require the isolation and characterization of these cells. A simple technique for the culture of an enriched population of murine thymic epithelium is described.… Read more

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Distinctive immunological properties of cultured murine thymic epithelial cells

Abstract

Skin painting with chemically reactive haptens induces a hapten-specific state of hypersensitivity that is long lasting and can be transferred to unirradiated recipient mice. A similar state of hapten-specific contact sensitivity can be induced by intravenous immunization with hapten-conjugated cells.… Read more

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Detection of a novel binding site for T cell derived antigen binding proteins on thymic epithelial cell surfaces

Abstract

The presence of helper T cells that do not recognize major histocompatibility complex encoded antigenic determinants but rather are specific for self idiotypic determinants led us to search for a mechanism by which such cells might be influenced by idiotype expressed on the surfaces of thymic epithelial cells.… Read more

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How T lymphocytes recognize antigen

Abstract

One of the most intriguing problems in immunology during the years since the discovery of T cells as an entity has been the nature and specificity of their receptors. The study of the antigen-binding receptors in T cells has been plagued by a number of technical difficulties that are just now being solved.… Read more

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T lymphocytes responding to Mls-locus antigens are Lyt-1+, 2- and I-A restricted

Abstract

We have investigated primary and secondary responses of mouse splenic T cells to strong mixed lymphocyte stimulating antigens controlled by the Mls locus using MHC-identical mixtures of cells. Our studies show that strong primary Mls-locus specific responses involve recognition of self I-A antigens, since BUdR and light suicide or F1 into parent radiation bone-marrow chimeras both demonstrate a preference of unprimed F1 T cells to respond to Mls-locus antigens associated with one parent’s MHC antigens.… Read more