PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of country socioeconomic status and hospital type on device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
METHODS: Data were collected on DA-HAIs from September 2003 to February 2010 on 13,251 patients in 30 NICUs in 15 countries. DA-HAIs were defined using criteria formulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Country socioeconomic status was defined using World Bank criteria.
RESULTS: Central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) rates in NICU patients were significantly lower in private than academic hospitals (10.8 vs. 14.3 CLA-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days; p < 0.03), but not different in public and academic hospitals (14.6 vs. 14.3 CLA-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days; p = 0.86). NICU patient CLA-BSI rates were significantly higher in low-income countries than in lower-middle-income countries or upper-middle-income countries [37.0 vs. 11.9 (p < 0.02) vs. 17.6 (p < 0.05) CLA-BSIs per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively]. Ventilator-associated-pneumonia (VAP) rates in NICU patients were significantly higher in academic hospitals than in private or public hospitals [13.2 vs. 2.4 (p < 0.001) vs. 4.9 (p < 0.001) VAPs per 1,000 ventilator days, respectively]. Lower-middle-income countries had significantly higher VAP rates than low-income countries (11.8 vs. 3.8 per 1,000 ventilator-days; p < 0.001), but VAP rates were not different in low-income countries and upper-middle-income countries (3.8 vs. 6.7 per 1,000 ventilator-days; p = 0.57). When examined by hospital type, overall crude mortality for NICU patients without DA-HAIs was significantly higher in academic and public hospitals than in private hospitals (5.8 vs. 12.5%; p < 0.001). In contrast, NICU patient mortality among those with DA-HAIs was not different regardless of hospital type or country socioeconomic level.
CONCLUSIONS: Hospital type and country socioeconomic level influence DA-HAI rates and overall mortality in developing countries.
Rosenthal VD, Lynch P, Jarvis WR, Khader IA, Richtmann R, Jaballah NB, Aygun C, Villamil-Gómez W, Dueñas L, Atencio-Espinoza T, Navoa-Ng JA, Pawar M, Sobreyra-Oropeza M, Barkat A, Mejía N, Yuet-Meng C, Apisarnthanarak A,
Infection 2011 Oct;39(5):439-50