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Meta-analysis on central line-associated bloodstream infections associated with a needleless intravenous connector with a new engineering design

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intravenous needleless connectors (NCs) with a desired patient safety design may facilitate effective intravenous line care and reduce the risk for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI). We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the risk for CLA-BSI associated with the use of a new NC with an improved engineering design.… Read more

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Comparison of central line-associated bloodstream infection rates when changing to a zero fluid displacement intravenous needleless connector in acute care settings

Abstract

This was a multicenter, quasiexperimental, 140-month, acute care study comparing central line-associated bloodstream infection rates associated with positive or negative intravenous connectors to a zero fluid displacement connector. A decrease in central line-associated bloodstream infections was found after changing from either negative or positive intravenous connectors to the zero fluid displacement connector (P = .004) with total cost savings of over $3 million.… Read more

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Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium prospective surveillance study from January 2004 to December 2009 in 33 pediatric intensive care units of 16 countries and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated health care-associated infection rates.… Read more

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Health care-associated infection outbreak investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1946-2005

Abstract

Since 1946, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel have investigated outbreaks of infections and adverse events associated with delivery of health care. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have led onsite investigations of these outbreaks by systematically applying epidemiology, statistics, and laboratory science.… Read more

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Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in limited-resource neonatal intensive care units: findings of the INICC

Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of country socioeconomic status and hospital type on device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

METHODS: Data were collected on DA-HAIs from September 2003 to February 2010 on 13,251 patients in 30 NICUs in 15 countries.… Read more

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Economic impact of use of chlorhexidine-impregnated sponge dressing for prevention of central line-associated infections in the United States

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The economic impact of adding chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated sponge dressing to standard care (ie, chg-impregnated sponge dressing + skin preparation and transparent film dressing vs skin preparation and transparent film dressing) for the prevention of central-line infections was evaluated.… Read more

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Guidelines on blood cultures

Abstract

Just over one-third of sepsis patients have positive blood cultures, mainly due to inadequate sampling volumes (50% of adults have < 1.0 CFU/mL blood) and the prior use of antibiotics. However, 20-30% of sepsis patients are given inappropriate empirical antibiotics. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines recommend paired culture sets to help discriminate between contaminant organisms and true pathogens; four 10-mL bottles (2 sets) should be used for the initial evaluation to detect about 90-95% of bacteremias and six 10-mL bottles (3 sets) should be used to detect about 95-99% of bacteremias. It has also been shown that the positivity rate increased by 15-35% with resin-based media in patients on antibiotics. For diagnosing catheter-related bloodstream infections, differential time-to-positivity is one method recommended to help determine whether the catheter is truly the source of infection. The proper training of personnel with regard to drawing an appropriate blood volume and the importance of clear labeling of culture bottles is also of critical importance. Furthermore, if the contamination rate is relatively high, hiring dedicated staff who are well-trained in order to get a lower blood culture contamination rate may be cost-effective. It is because high false-positive blood culture rates due to contamination are associated with significantly increased hospital and laboratory charges.

Towns ML, Jarvis WR, Hsueh PR

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2010 Aug;43(4):347-9

PMID: 20688297

Guidelines on blood cultures was last modified: August 1st, 2010 by Towns ML, Jarvis WR, Hsueh PR… Read more
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Health care-associated bloodstream infections associated with negative- or positive-pressure or displacement mechanical valve needleless connectors

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated, central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Needleless connectors (NCs) are an important component of the intravenous system. NCs initially were introduced to reduce health care worker needlestick injuries, yet some of these NCs may increase HA-BSI risk.… Read more

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Prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive care units: a performance improvement collaborative

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this effort was to reduce central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients by means of a multicenter evidence-based intervention.

METHODS: An observational study was conducted in 26 freestanding children’s hospitals with pediatric or cardiac ICUs that joined a Child Health Corporation of America collaborative.… Read more

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Healthcare-associated infection in Italy: annual point-prevalence surveys, 2002-2004

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During the period from 2002 through 2004, a group of Italian hospitals was recruited to conduct HAI point-prevalence surveys.

DESIGN: Three point-prevalence surveys.

METHODS: A total of 9,609 patients were surveyed.… Read more

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Gram-negative bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: the roles of needleless device use, bathing practices, and catheter care

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Between August 1 and October 30, 1998 (outbreak period), an increased incidence of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection (GN-BSI) was detected in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) candidates and recipients in an outpatient HSCT unit. The objectives of the present study were to determine strategies for controlling the outbreak and identify risk factors for GN-BSI.… Read more

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Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections among neonates in a high-risk nursery in Cali, Colombia

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the cause of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) among neonates in a high-risk nursery and to institute control measures.

DESIGN: During the on-site investigation, a cohort study to identify risk factors for K. pneumoniae BSI, a point-prevalence study to assess K.… Read more

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Clinical predictors of bloodstream infections and mortality in hospitalized Malawian children

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major cause of pediatric mortality. Because of limited resources and facilities in these developing countries, treatment often must be based solely on clinical observations and patient history and includes the use of broad spectrum antimicrobials, a factor in the emergence of antibiotic resistance.… Read more

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Benchmarking for prevention: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system experience

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality at hospitals in the United States. Surveillance of these infections identifies secular trends and provides data upon which prevention interventions can be based in order to improve patient safety. National surveillance of healthcare-associated infections was initiated in the United States in 1970.… Read more

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Epidemiology of bloodstream infections in a bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated pediatric population in Malawi

Abstract

The risk of Mycobacterium bovis bloodstream infection (BSI) in bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains uncharacterized. We studied pediatric inpatients during the 1998 dry season in Malawi. After a detailed clinical evaluation, blood was drawn for culture and HIV testing.… Read more

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Detection of bloodstream pathogens in a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated pediatric population in Malawi: a pilot study

Abstract

Children in Malawi receive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination within the first 3 days of life. Thus, we hypothesized that Malawian children infected with the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1) might be particularly vulnerable to dissemination of the BCG Mycobacterium bovis strain with which they were vaccinated.… Read more

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Peripheral blood cell-specific cytokines in persons with untreated HIV infection in Malawi, Africa

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, Africa, because of its many effects on the immune system. Immune cells communicate through cytokines; therefore, we examined the relationships between HIV serostatus and cell-specific cytokine production for 40 asymptomatic, employed adults and 312 acutely ill, hospitalized patients in Malawi.… Read more

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Demographic and immune correlates of human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity in Malawi, Africa

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the USA, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and HIV infection. We examined HHV-8 seroprevalence in a Malawian cohort, and assessed its relationship with HIV, KS, demographic characteristics, and immune findings.

METHODS: In 1997 and 1998, blood samples were obtained from 272 hospitalized Malawian patients, for whom demographic information was obtained, and 24 healthy volunteers without demographic data.… Read more

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Clinical and immune impact of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination scarring

Abstract

The World Health Organization recommends Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence. BCG’s clinical and immune effects, not necessarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific, are unclear. BCG vaccine scarring often is used as a surrogate marker of vaccination or of effective vaccination.… Read more

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Evaluation and treatment of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis: a survey of neonatologists’ practices

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain current diagnostic and treatment practices for suspected late-onset sepsis in infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and identify areas that may benefit from clinical practice guidelines.

METHODS: During June 2000, we conducted a multicenter survey of neonatologists and infection control professionals regarding practices related to late-onset sepsis in NICUs at children’s hospitals participating in the Pediatric Prevention Network.… Read more

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Spontaneous cytokine production and its effect on induced production

Abstract

Cytokines regulate cellular immune activity and are produced by a variety of cells, especially lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. Multiparameter flow cytometry is often used to examine cell-specific cytokine production after in vitro phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin induction, with brefeldin A or other agents added to inhibit protein secretion.… Read more

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Vitamin A levels and immunity in humans

Abstract

In animal studies, vitamin A deficiency induces a shift from type 2 (humoral, Th2) to type 1 (cellular, Th1) cytokines; there are no similar data for humans. Control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections requires type 1 cytokine (cellular) immunity.… Read more

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The evolving world of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection surveillance and prevention: is your system as good as you think?

Abstract

Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 May;23(5):236-8

PMID: 12026146

The evolving world of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection surveillance and prevention: is your system as good as you think? was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Jarvis WR… Read more
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Bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology outpatients: a new healthcare systems challenge

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a perceived increase in central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) among pediatric hematology-oncology outpatients.

DESIGN: A case-control study.

SETTING: A pediatric hematology-oncology outpatient clinic at Fresno Children’s Hospital.

PATIENTS: Pediatric hematology-oncology clinic outpatients with CVCs at Fresno Children’s Hospital between November 1994 and October 1997.… Read more

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Age-related differences in cell-specific cytokine production by acutely ill Malawian patients

Abstract

Age-related changes in human cell-specific cytokine responses to acute illness have not been well examined. We therefore evaluated age-related differences in T, B and natural killer (NK) peripheral blood lymphocyte cytokine responses of 309 acutely ill hospitalized people in Malawi, Africa, < 1 month-61 years of age.… Read more

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The effects of iron deficiency on lymphocyte cytokine production and activation: preservation of hepatic iron but not at all cost

Abstract

Worldwide, over 40% of children have iron deficiency anaemia, frequently associated with infections. Certain cytokines are involved in both immune activation/response to infection and iron transport/metabolism. We therefore assessed the relations among iron deficiency, cytokine production and lymphocyte activation markers in 142 hospitalized Malawian children.… Read more

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Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: Results from the first national point-prevalence survey

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at high risk of nosocomial infection. We conducted a national multicenter assessment of nosocomial infections in NICUs to determine the prevalence of infections, describe associated risk factors, and help focus prevention efforts.… Read more

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Comparison of serum and cell-specific cytokines in humans

Abstract

Cytokines function at the cellular, microenvironmental level, but human cytokine assessment is most commonly done at the macro level, by measuring serum cytokines. The relationships between serum and cellular cytokines, if there are any, are undefined. In a study of hospitalized patients in Malawi, we compared cytometrically assessed, cell-specific cytokine data to serum interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in 16 children and 71 (IL-2, -4, -6, -10) or 159 (IL-8, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) adults, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Pearson’s (r(p)) and Spearman’s (r(s)) rank correlations.… Read more

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Intracellular cytokines in the acute response to highly active antiretroviral therapy

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is usually associated with a rapid decline in HIV plasma RNA levels and a gradual increase in CD4 T cells. We examined whether changes in cytokine production and profile precede other immunological changes and whether these might occur in temporal association with plasma HIV RNA changes.… Read more

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Cytokines and malaria parasitemia

Abstract

The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines may be important in malaria presentation and outcome. Malaria tends to be more severe in children than in adults, presumably because partial immunity develops with age. However, the full nature of, and age-related differences in, anti-malarial immunity are unknown.… Read more

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Risk factors for candidal bloodstream infections in surgical intensive care unit patients: the NEMIS prospective multicenter study. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey

Abstract

To assess risk factors for development of candidal blood stream infections (CBSIs), a prospective cohort study was performed at 6 sites that involved all patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) for 48 h over a 2-year period.… Read more

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Costs and savings associated with infection control measures that reduced transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an endemic setting

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the costs and savings of a 15-component infection control program that reduced transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in an endemic setting.

DESIGN: Evaluation of costs and savings, using historical control data.

SETTING: Adult oncology unit of a 650-bed hospital.… Read more

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Nosocomial infection rates in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal and pediatric intensive care units

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on nosocomial infections (NIs) in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal or pediatric intensive care units. The Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) was established to improve characterization of NIs in pediatric patients and to develop and test interventions to decrease NI.… Read more

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Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections from contamination of epoetin alfa at a hemodialysis center

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In a one month period, 10 Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections and 6 pyrogenic reactions occurred in outpatients at a hemodialysis center.

METHODS: We performed a cohort study of all hemodialysis sessions on days that staff members reported S. liquefaciens bloodstream infections or pyrogenic reactions.… Read more

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Utility of paired BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC blood culture vials for detection of bacteremia, mycobacteremia, and fungemia

Abstract

In previous bloodstream infection studies in Malawi, we inoculated blood from a single venesection into a single BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC (MFL) vial. Inoculation of one vial, however, would be expected to reduce the sensitivity of bloodstream pathogen detection with MFL vials.… Read more

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Reality check: should we use vancomycin for the prophylaxis of intravascular catheter-associated infections?

Abstract

The use of intravascular catheters is associated with increased risk of bloodstream infections, principally caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This “Reality Check” session, held at the 4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections, focused on the question of whether, and in what manner, vancomycin should be used for the prophylaxis of these infections

Grohskopf LA, Maki DG, Sohn AH, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, Jarvis WR, Goldmann DA

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001 Mar;22(3):176-9

PMID: 11310698

Reality check: should we use vancomycin for the prophylaxis of intravascular catheter-associated infections?… Read more
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Seasonal variation in the etiology of bloodstream infections in a febrile inpatient population in a developing country

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Published data suggest that Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typhi Salmonella species, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the predominant causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in hospitalized populations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted during the wet season to ascertain the etiology and prevalence of BSI among febrile inpatients in a hospital where the dry season BSI profile in a similar study population had already been documented.… Read more

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Comparison of BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC and WAMPOLE ISOLATOR 10 (lysis-centrifugation) systems for detection of bacteremia, mycobacteremia, and fungemia in a developing country

Abstract

In less-developed countries, studies of bloodstream infections (BSI) have been hindered because of the difficulty and costs of culturing blood for bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. During two study periods (study period I [1997] and study period II [1998]), we cultured blood from patients in Malawi by using the BACTEC MYCO/F LYTIC (MFL), ISOLATOR 10 (Isolator), Septi-Chek AFB (SC-AFB), and Septi-Chek bacterial (SC-B) systems.… Read more

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Natural T, gammadelta, and NK cells in mycobacterial, Salmonella, and human immunodeficiency virus infections

Abstract

NK cells, gammadelta T cell antigen receptor chain-positive cells, and CD3(+)CD16/56(+) (natural T [NT]) cells are involved in innate immunity and immunoregulation; however, their role in clinical infection is not well defined. Cytofluorometric analysis was used to examine peripheral blood from bacteremic, nonbacteremic, and healthy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative persons in Malawi, Africa.… Read more

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A hospital-based prevalence survey of bloodstream infections in febrile patients in Malawi: implications for diagnosis and therapy

Abstract

The etiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in febrile (or =37.5 degrees C) adults (or =18 years old) in one Malawi hospital were determined during August and September 1997. After clinical evaluation, blood was drawn for comprehensive culture, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 testing, and malaria smear.… Read more

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Determining the significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures at a community hospital: a role for species and strain identification

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the degree to which species identification or strain relatedness assessment of successive blood culture isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) may improve the clinical diagnosis of bloodstream infection (BSI).

SETTING: 400-bed community hospital.

DESIGN: Prospective laboratory survey during which all CNS blood culture isolates obtained between mid-August 1996 and mid-February 1997 (study period) were saved and later identified to the species level; selected isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).… Read more

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A prolonged outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: did staff fingernails play a role in disease transmission?

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) and endotracheal tube (ETT) colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), determine risk factors for infection, and make preventive recommendations.

DESIGN: A 15-month cohort study followed by a case-control study with an environmental survey and molecular typing of available isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.… Read more

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The influence of the composition of the nursing staff on primary bloodstream infection rates in a surgical intensive care unit

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors for acquisition of nosocomial primary bloodstream infections (BSIs), including the effect of nursing-staff levels, in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients.

DESIGN: A nested case-control study.

SETTING: A 20-bed SICU in a 1,000-bed inner-city public hospital.… Read more

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Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infections traced to contaminated human albumin

Abstract

In August 1996, a patient in Kansas developed an Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infection (BSI) shortly after receiving Albuminar, a brand of human albumin. Albuminar contamination was suspected. A case-control study of patients with primary gram-negative bacterial BSIs showed that patients with E.… Read more

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Association between mucositis severity and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bloodstream infection in hospitalized cancer patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of mucositis severity in the development of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI).

SETTING: A tertiary-care university medical center.

PARTICIPANTS: Hematology-oncology-unit inpatients.

DESIGN: Patients with VRE BSI (case-patients) were compared with VRE-colonized (control) patients from September 1994 through August 1997.… Read more

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Prospective evaluation of risk factors for bloodstream infection in patients receiving home infusion therapy

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intravenous therapy in the outpatient and home settings is commonplace for many diseases and nutritional disorders. Few data are available on the rate of and risk factors for bloodstream infection among patients receiving such therapy.

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of and risk factors for bloodstream infection among patients receiving home infusion therapy.… Read more

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Infection-control measures reduce transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an endemic setting

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are nosocomial pathogens in many U. S. hospitals.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether enhanced infection-control strategies reduce transmission of VRE in an endemic setting.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Adult oncology inpatient unit.

PATIENTS: 259 patients evaluated during use of enhanced infection-control strategies and 184 patients evaluated during use of standard infection-control practices.… Read more

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Fever and human immunodeficiency virus infection as sentinels for emerging mycobacterial and fungal bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients >/=15 years old, Bangkok

Abstract

To determine the etiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hospitalized patients /=15 years old in Thailand, prospectively enrolled, consecutive febrile (/=38 degrees C) patients were admitted to one hospital during February-April 1997. After a patient history was taken and a physical examination was performed, blood was obtained for comprehensive culture and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing.… Read more

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The emergence of decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in Staphylococcus epidermidis

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the major cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Emergence of vancomycin resistance among CNS is a serious public health concern, because CNS usually are multidrug-resistant, and glycopeptide antibiotics, among which only vancomycin is available in the United States, are the only remaining effective therapy.… Read more

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Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States.… Read more