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Bloodstream infections associated with a needleless intravenous infusion system in patients receiving home infusion therapy


OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for bloodstream infections (BSIs) in an outbreak among patients receiving home intravenous infusion therapy.

DESIGN: Case-control and retrospective cohort studies.

SETTING: Home health agency.

PATIENTS: Patients receiving home intravenous infusion therapy from Rhode Island Home Therapeutics (RIHT) from January through December 1993.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Development of primary BSI.

METHODS: We compared patients with BSI (ie, case patients) with randomly selected noninfected RIHT patients receiving intravenous therapy, conducted a cohort study of all RIHT patients receiving intravenous therapy via a central venous catheter (CVC), and conducted a culture survey of injection cap luminal fluid.

RESULTS: Case patients were more likely than controls to have had therapy via a CVC (11/11 vs 14/32; odds ratio [OR] undefined; P < .001) or total parenteral nutrition and intralipid therapy (TPN/IL) (9/11 vs 3/32; OR, 43.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9 to 510.0). Among RIHT patients with CVCs, risk factors for BSI were receipt of TPN/IL (9/35 vs 2/67; rate ratio [RR], 8.6; 95% CI, 2.0 to 37.7) or use of a needleless infusion system (10/41 vs 1/61; RR, 14.9; 95% CI, 2.0 to 111.8). Only the combination of both exposures was significantly associated with development of a BSI (P < .001). Luminal fluid from injection caps of needleless devices was significantly more likely to be culture positive than fluid from protected-needle devices (5/23 vs 0/18; RR undefined; P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a needleless device used for TPN/IL was associated with increased risk of BSI when injection caps were changed every 7 days.

Danzig LE, Short LJ, Collins K, Mahoney M, Sepe S, Bland L, Jarvis WR

JAMA 1995 Jun;273(23):1862-4

PMID: 7776503