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Serratia marcescens outbreak associated with extrinsic contamination of 1% chlorxylenol soap


OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for Serratia marcescens infection or colonization, and to identify the source of the pathogen and factors facilitating its persistence in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) during an outbreak.

DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study; review of NICU infection control policies, soap use, and handwashing practices among healthcare workers (HCWs); and selected environmental cultures.

SETTING: A university-affiliated tertiary-care hospital NICU.

PATIENTS: All NICU infants with at least one positive culture for S marcescens during August 1994 to October 1995. Infants who did not develop S marcescens infection or colonization were selected randomly as controls.

RESULTS: Thirty-two patients met the case definition. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for S marcescens infection or colonization were having very low birth weight (< 1,500 g), a patent ductus arteriosus, a mother with chorioamnionitis, or exposure to a single HCW. During January to July 1995, NICU HCWs carried their own bottles of 1% chlorxylenol soap, which often were left standing inverted in the NICU sink and work areas. Cultures of 16 (31%) of 52 samples of soap and 1 (8%) of 13 sinks yielded S marcescens. The 16 samples of soap all came from opened 4-oz bottles carried by HCWs. DNA banding patterns of case infant, HCW soap bottle, and sink isolates were identical.

CONCLUSIONS: Extrinsically contaminated soap contributed to an outbreak of S marcescens infection. Very-low-birth-weight infants with multiple invasive procedures and exposures to certain HCWs were at greatest risk of S marcescens infection or colonization.

Archibald LK, Corl A, Shah B, Schulte M, Arduino MJ, Aguero S, Fisher DJ, Stechenberg BW, Banerjee SN, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997 Oct;18(10):704-9

PMID: 9350463