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Health care-associated infection outbreak investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1946-2005

Abstract

Since 1946, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel have investigated outbreaks of infections and adverse events associated with delivery of health care. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have led onsite investigations of these outbreaks by systematically applying epidemiology, statistics, and laboratory science.… Read more

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Gram-negative bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: the roles of needleless device use, bathing practices, and catheter care

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Between August 1 and October 30, 1998 (outbreak period), an increased incidence of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection (GN-BSI) was detected in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) candidates and recipients in an outpatient HSCT unit. The objectives of the present study were to determine strategies for controlling the outbreak and identify risk factors for GN-BSI.… Read more

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National point prevalence of Clostridium difficile in US health care facility inpatients, 2008

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent published estimates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence have been based on small numbers of hospitals or national hospital discharge data. These data suggest that CDI incidence is increasing.

METHODS: We conducted a point prevalence survey of C difficile in inpatients at US health care facilities.… Read more

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Nationwide outbreak of red eye syndrome associated with transfusion of leukocyte-reduced red blood cell units

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To characterize red eye reactions occurring within 24 hours after receipt of units of leukocyte-reduced red blood cells, determine their etiology, and investigate their potential link to transfusion.

METHODS: We conducted a survey of transfusion facilities nationwide to determine the scope and magnitude of the reactions; performed case-control and cohort studies among transfused patients at the facility where most reactions occurred; and performed animal experiments, using cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from leukocyte-reduction filters and filter precursors, to reproduce reactions.… Read more

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Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections among neonates in a high-risk nursery in Cali, Colombia

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the cause of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) among neonates in a high-risk nursery and to institute control measures.

DESIGN: During the on-site investigation, a cohort study to identify risk factors for K. pneumoniae BSI, a point-prevalence study to assess K.… Read more

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Infection due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype infantis in a neonatal unit

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the investigation and control of an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Infantis in a neonatal unit in Brazil.

METHODS: A case-control study for risk factors for Salmonella Infantis systemic infection, environmental cultures, and evaluation of staffing and overcrowding and an assessment of infection control practices were performed.… Read more

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An outbreak of neonatal deaths in Brazil associated with contaminated intravenous fluids

Abstract

A nursery outbreak of fever and clinical sepsis resulted in the deaths of 36 neonates in Roraima, Brazil. To determine the cause, epidemiologic studies were performed, along with culture and endotoxin analysis of intravenous (iv) fluids. Affected neonates were more likely to have lower birth weight (2.1 vs.… Read more

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Serratia marcescens bacteremia traced to an infused narcotic

Abstract

BACKGROUND: From June 30, 1998, through March 21, 1999, several patients in the surgical intensive care unit of a hospital acquired Serratia marcescens bacteremia. We investigated this outbreak.

METHODS: A case was defined as the occurrence of S. marcescens bacteremia in any patient in the surgical intensive care unit during the period of the epidemic.… Read more

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Nosocomial outbreak of Microbacterium species bacteremia among cancer patients

Abstract

To date, only 6 sporadic Microbacterium species (formerly coryneform Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] groups A-4 and A-5) infections have been reported. The source, mode of transmission, morbidity, mortality, and potential for nosocomial transmission of Microbacterium species remain unknown.… Read more

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Occupational transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to health care workers in a university hospital in Lima, Peru

Abstract

From November 1996 through March 1997, presumptive active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was detected in 44 health care workers (HCWs) at a university hospital in Lima, Peru. To further assess the magnitude of the outbreak and determine risk factors for occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, we identified HCWs in whom active pulmonary TB was diagnosed from January 1994 through January 1998, calculated rates by year and hospital work area, and conducted a tuberculin skin test (TST) survey.… Read more

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Use and efficacy of tuberculosis infection control practices at hospitals with previous outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation and efficacy of selected Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for preventing spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

DESIGN: Analysis of prospective observational data.

SETTING: Two medical centers where outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) had occurred.… Read more

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Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections from contamination of epoetin alfa at a hemodialysis center

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In a one month period, 10 Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections and 6 pyrogenic reactions occurred in outpatients at a hemodialysis center.

METHODS: We performed a cohort study of all hemodialysis sessions on days that staff members reported S. liquefaciens bloodstream infections or pyrogenic reactions.… Read more

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Invasive aspergillosis outbreak on a hematology-oncology ward

Abstract

An outbreak of invasive aspergillosis occurred in a community hospital in temporal association with construction activity. Epidemiological investigation showed that patients who are at highest risk comprise a small group and are readily identifiable. Clinicians should strive to protect these patients, following guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.… Read more

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Pyrogenic reactions associated with single daily dosing of intravenous gentamicin

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with an unexpected outbreak of pyrogenic reactions (PR) following intravenous gentamicin.

DESIGN: We conducted two cohort studies. PRs were defined as chills, rigors, or shaking within 3 hours after initiating the gentamicin infusion during the preepidemic (December 1, 1997-January 15, 1998) or epidemic (May 1-June 15, 1998) periods.… Read more

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Risk factors for acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci among patients on a renal ward during a community hospital outbreak

Abstract

BACKGROUND: During an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection and colonization at a community hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana, we performed a case-control study of patients on the hospital’s renal unit to determine risk factors for acquisition of VRE among this potentially high-risk patient population.… Read more

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Acute onset of decreased vision and hearing traced to hemodialysis treatment with aged dialyzers

Abstract

CONTEXT: A recent event in which 7 patients at 1 hospital developed decreased vision and hearing, conjunctivitis, headache, and other severe neurologic symptoms 7 to 24 hours after hemodialysis drew attention to the issue of the long-term integrity of dialysis machines and materials.… Read more

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Outbreaks of infection and/or pyrogenic reactions in dialysis patients

Abstract

These dialysis-related outbreaks demonstrate the ongoing potential for infection-related morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients. Many of these outbreaks could have been prevented by adequate water treatment, proper disinfection of water systems and dialysis machines, adherence to recommended reprocessing protocols in centers reusing dialyzers, and more stringent quality control monitoring.… Read more

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Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventriculitis among patients in a neurosurgical intensive care unit

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cerebral ventriculitis among eight patients at a community hospital neurosurgical intensive care unit. All had percutaneous external ventricular catheters (EVCs) to monitor cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure.

METHODS: Cohort study of all patients who had EVCs placed during the epidemic period (August 8-October 22, 1997).… Read more

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A prolonged outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: did staff fingernails play a role in disease transmission?

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) and endotracheal tube (ETT) colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), determine risk factors for infection, and make preventive recommendations.

DESIGN: A 15-month cohort study followed by a case-control study with an environmental survey and molecular typing of available isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.… Read more

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Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infections traced to contaminated human albumin

Abstract

In August 1996, a patient in Kansas developed an Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infection (BSI) shortly after receiving Albuminar, a brand of human albumin. Albuminar contamination was suspected. A case-control study of patients with primary gram-negative bacterial BSIs showed that patients with E.… Read more

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Epidemic transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in renal dialysis centers in Egypt

Abstract

In 1993 an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among 39 patients at 2 renal dialysis centers in Egypt. The centers, private center A (PCA) and university center A (UCA) were visited, HIV-infected patients were interviewed, seroconversion rates at UCA were calculated, and relatedness of HIV strains was determined by sequence analysis; 34 (62%) of 55 patients from UCA and 5 (42%) of 12 patients from PCA were HIV-infected.… Read more

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An outbreak of gram-negative bacteremia in hemodialysis patients traced to hemodialysis machine waste drain ports

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate an outbreak of gram-negative bacteremias at a hemodialysis center (December 1, 1996-January 31, 1997).

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Reviewed infection control practices and maintenance and disinfection procedures for the water system and dialysis machines. Performed cultures of the water and dialysis machines, including the waste-handling option (WHO), a drain port designed to dispose of saline used to flush the dialyzer before patient use.… Read more

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A multistate nosocomial outbreak of Ralstonia pickettii colonization associated with an intrinsically contaminated respiratory care solution

Abstract

From 1 February through 30 April 1998, 4 hospitals reported a total of 34 patients colonized with Ralstonia pickettii. All but 1 had been exposed to 0.9% saline solution manufactured by 1 company (Modudose; Kendall, Mainsfield, MA), which was used during endotracheal suctioning.… Read more

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Lessons from recent nosocomial epidemics

Abstract

This review describes important examples of recent nosocomial infection epidemics. Current trends suggest that emerging problems in nosocomial infections include increased nosocomial epidemics in out-of-hospital settings, contamination of medical devices and products, and antimicrobial resistance. Increased attention should be focused on outbreak investigations in these areas.… Read more

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A pseudoepidemic of postoperative scleritis due to misdiagnosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe a pseudoepidemic of infectious scleritis following eye surgery.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with selected procedural and laboratory investigations.

RESULTS: Twenty-one patients with postoperative scleritis were identified during a 2-month outbreak. Neither an infectious etiology nor a causative pre-, intra-, or postoperative exposure was found.… Read more

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Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial bloodstream infections traced to extrinsic contamination of a dextrose multidose vial

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for polymicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients during an outbreak of BSIs.

DESIGN: During an outbreak of BSIs, we conducted a retrospective cohort study, assessed NICU infection control practices and patient exposure to NICU healthcare workers (HCWs), and obtained cultures of the environment and HCW hands.… Read more

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Nocardia farcinica sternotomy site infections in patients following open heart surgery

Abstract

Although Nocardia farcinica surgical site infection outbreaks have been reported (though rarely), no source for these has been identified. From May 1992 through June 1993, 5 patients contracted N. farcinica sternotomy site infections following open heart surgery at hospital A.… Read more

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Outbreak of sterile peritonitis among continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis patients

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30,000 patients receive peritoneal dialysis in the United States. In August 1996, several dialysis centers from different states reported sterile peritonitis among CCPD patients using sterile peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) from a single manufacturer. The manufacturer recalled 53 lots of PDS that had passed established industry guidelines and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved quality control tests [including endotoxin levels 1 cfu/ml.… Read more

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Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in neonates in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

DESIGN: Two case-control studies among hospitalized neonates during February 15-May 14, 1991, and a procedural and microbiological investigation.… Read more

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Outbreak of Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infections in a nursery associated with contaminated aerosols and air conditioners

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter spp. are multidrug-resistant bacteria that grow well in water and cause infections with unexplained, increased summer prevalence. In August, 1996, eight infants acquired Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infection (A-BSI) while in a nursery in the Bahamas; three infants died and an investigation was initiated.… Read more

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Are US hospitals making progress in implementing guidelines for prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission?

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) in hospitals have occurred when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline recommendations for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were not fully implemented.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether US hospitals are making progress in implementing the CDC guidelines for preventing TB.… Read more

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Liver failure and death after exposure to microcystins at a hemodialysis center in Brazil

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis is a common but potentially hazardous procedure. From February 17 to 20, 1996, 116 of 130 patients (89 percent) at a dialysis center (dialysis center A) in Caruaru, Brazil, had visual disturbances, nausea, and vomiting associated with hemodialysis.… Read more

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A cluster of bloodstream infections and pyrogenic reactions among hemodialysis patients traced to dialysis machine waste-handling option units

Abstract

From June 17 through November 15, 1995, ten episodes of Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infection and three pyrogenic reactions occurred in patients at a hospital-based hemodialysis center. In a case-control study limited to events occurring during October 1-31, 1995, seven dialysis sessions resulting in E.… Read more

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Use of an estimation method to derive an appropriate denominator to calculate central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection rates

Abstract

An outbreak investigation was conducted to determine if an increase in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) had occurred. Because other methods of obtaining CVC days were not feasible, we used an estimation method based on a random 5% sample of medical records to determine the proportion of days that a CVC was present for each of three patient units.… Read more

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Patient density, nurse-to-patient ratio and nosocomial infection risk in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An investigation of a Serratia marcescens outbreak in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) suggested that understaffing or overcrowding might have been underlying risk factors.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of fluctuations in CICU nurse staffing levels and patient census on CICU nosocomial infection rate (NIR).… Read more

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Serratia marcescens outbreak associated with extrinsic contamination of 1% chlorxylenol soap

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for Serratia marcescens infection or colonization, and to identify the source of the pathogen and factors facilitating its persistence in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) during an outbreak.

DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study; review of NICU infection control policies, soap use, and handwashing practices among healthcare workers (HCWs); and selected environmental cultures.… Read more

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The cost of selected tuberculosis control measures at hospitals with a history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreaks

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost of nonrespirator-related tuberculosis (TB) control measures at several hospitals, following publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s revised TB infection control guidelines.

DESIGN: Infection control (IC) and TB coordinators obtained cost information on tuberculin skin-test (TST) programs, addition of IC and employee health service (EHS) personnel, and the retrofit or new construction of environmental controls.… Read more

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Pseudo-outbreak of septicemia due to rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with extrinsic contamination of culture supplement

Abstract

Between April and December 1994, 23 blood cultures from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients grew rapidly growing mycobacteria suspected to be Mycobacterium chelonae at a hospital in New Jersey. The isolates were later identified as M. abscessus. Several bacterial species, including M.… Read more

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Prevention of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Abstract

The recent resurgence of TB together with the ongoing HIV epidemic has resulted in a larger number of infectious TB patients being admitted to US health care facilities. These patients have become a source for both nosocomial (patient-to-patient) and occupational (patient-to-health care worker) M.… Read more

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Postoperative Serratia marcescens wound infections traced to an out-of-hospital source

Abstract

From 25 August to 28 September 1994, 7 cardiovascular surgery (CVS) patients at a California hospital acquired postoperative Serratia marcescens infections, and 1 died. To identify the outbreak source, a cohort study was done of all 55 adults who underwent CVS at the hospital during the outbreak.… Read more

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Tracing patients exposed to health care workers with tuberculosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Following an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) among health care workers at a public hospital, the study was undertaken to (a) locate all exposed patients and administer tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) to them, (b) provide clinical treatment or prophylaxis to infected patients, and (c) ascertain the risk of M.… Read more

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Outbreak investigations

Abstract

Epidemic nosocomial infections are defined as hospital-acquired infections that represent an increase in incidence over expected rates. Epidemic-associated infections usually are clustered temporally or geographically, suggesting that the infections are from a common source or are secondary to increased person-to-person transmission.… Read more

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Nosocomial Burkholderia cepacia outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks

Abstract

Mangram A, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996 Nov;17(11):718-20

PMID: 8934237

Nosocomial Burkholderia cepacia outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks was last modified: November 1st, 1996 by Mangram A, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: epidemiologic and laboratory confirmation of a common source outbreak

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). When a cluster of C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections occurred in NICU patients in a hospital in Louisiana, it provided us with the opportunity to conduct an epidemiologic investigation and to apply newly developed molecular typing techniques.… Read more

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Pseudo-outbreak of Enterococcus durans infections and colonization associated with introduction of an automated identification system software update

Abstract

Enterococci are an important cause of hospital-acquired infections. Since 1989, there has been an increase in the number of nosocomial enterococcal infections caused by strains resistant to vancomycin in the United States. Although many enterococcal species can colonize humans, only Enterococcus faecalis, E.… Read more

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Status of tuberculosis infection control programs at United States hospitals, 1989 to 1992. APIC. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent nosocomial outbreaks have raised concern about the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in United States hospitals.

METHODS: To determine current tuberculosis (TB) infection control practices, we surveyed a sample of approximately 3000 acute care facilities about the number of patients with drug-susceptible or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), health care worker (HCW) tuberculin skin test (TST) results, and compliance with the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) TB guidelines.… Read more

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Gram-negative bacteremia in open-heart-surgery patients traced to probable tap-water contamination of pressure-monitoring equipment

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause(s) of an outbreak of gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in open-heart-surgery (OHS) patients at hospital A.

DESIGN: Case-control and cohort studies and an environmental survey.

RESULTS: Nine patients developed GNB with Enterobacter cloacae (6), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Serratia marcescens (2), or Klebsiella oxytoca (1) following OHS; five of nine patients had polymicrobial bacteremia.… Read more

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The role of understaffing in central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI) during a protracted outbreak.

DESIGN: Case-control and cohort studies of surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients.

SETTING: A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center.

PATIENTS: Case-control study: all patients who developed a CVC-BSI during the outbreak period (January 1992 through September 1993) and randomly selected controls.… Read more

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Acremonium kiliense endophthalmitis that occurred after cataract extraction in an ambulatory surgical center and was traced to an environmental reservoir

Abstract

During October and November 1993, four patients contracted Acremonium kiliense endophthalmitis at one ambulatory surgical center. We hypothesized that the source was environmental and conducted a matched case-control study, environmental evaluation, and observational studies. Case and control patients were similar in clinical characteristics.… Read more

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Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of health care workers in outbreak propagation

Abstract

To investigate an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) among health care workers (HCWs) at a county hospital, all patients with culture-confirmed TB on wards A and B and all HCWs working at least one shift on these wards from January 1991 through March 1992 were studied.… Read more