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Nosocomial outbreak of Candida albicans sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery traced to a scrub nurse

Abstract

From August 1988 through October 1989, 15 patients at 1 hospital developed Candida albicans sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery. An investigation found that case-patients were more likely than cardiac surgery patients without sternal wound infections to have surgeries lasting 165 min (11/15 vs.… Read more

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Epidemic aluminum intoxication in hemodialysis patients traced to use of an aluminum pump

Abstract

This study was designed to identify the source, risk factors, and clinical consequences of an outbreak of aluminum intoxication in hemodialysis patients using case-control and cohort studies. In 1991, a dialysis center in Pennsylvania [Dialysis Center A (DCA)] identified a number of patients with elevated serum aluminum levels.… Read more

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Bloodstream infections associated with a needleless intravenous infusion system in patients receiving home infusion therapy

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for bloodstream infections (BSIs) in an outbreak among patients receiving home intravenous infusion therapy.

DESIGN: Case-control and retrospective cohort studies.

SETTING: Home health agency.

PATIENTS: Patients receiving home intravenous infusion therapy from Rhode Island Home Therapeutics (RIHT) from January through December 1993.… Read more

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Tuberculosis in health care workers at a hospital with an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Investigate reports of tuberculosis in health care workers employed at a hospital with an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

DESIGN: Case series of tuberculosis in health care workers, January 1, 1989, through May 31, 1992. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of M tuberculosis isolates.… Read more

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An outbreak of pyrogenic reactions in chronic hemodialysis patients associated with hemodialyzer reuse

Abstract

In February 1992, 22 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis at an outpatient dialysis center experienced pyrogenic reactions (PR). The PR rate was significantly greater (p < 0.001) during the epidemic (February 3-5) than the pre-epidemic period (November 1, 1992-February 1, 1992). All patients with PR used dialyzers that had been manually reprocessed either on February 1 or 3. These dialyzers contained up to 120.8 EU/ml of endotoxin in the blood compartment. The only dialyzer reprocessed before February 1 that was available for analysis was found to contain no detectable endotoxin, while dialyzers reprocessed during the epidemic period contained a median endotoxin concentration of 52.8 EU/ml. The bioburden of water used to prepare dialysate was in excess of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standard for water, < or = 200 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. Samples of treated water collected in the reuse area were within AAMI standards at the time of the investigation (February 11 and February 26), but before the investigation, water samples were assayed with a culture method that could not detect microbial concentrations below 10(3) CFU/ml. In addition, the treated water feed line to the disinfectant container may never have been disinfected. However, no samples were collected from this line during the investigation. This outbreak emphasizes the need to use water that meets the AAMI bacteriologic and endotoxin standards of < or = to 200 CFU/ml and/or 5 EU/ml, respectively, for reprocessing hemodialyzers nad to ensure that appropriate culture techniques are used for treated water dialysate.

Rudnick JR, Arduino MJ, Bland LA, Cusick L, McAllister SK, Aguero SM, Jarvis WR

Artif Organs 1995 Apr;19(4):289-94

PMID: 7598647… Read more

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Epidemic nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit

Abstract

The changing and expanding spectrum of pathogens associated with nosocomial pneumonia (NP) will require modification in our approach to both endemic and epidemic NP in the ICU. Knowledge of specific pathogens, modes of transmission, and sources or reservoirs of epidemic NP is crucial to the recognition, control, and prevention of these infections in ICU patients.… Read more

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Control of nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among healthcare workers and HIV-infected patients

Abstract

From 1988 to 1990, an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients, and an increased number of tuberculin-skin-test conversions among healthcare workers, occurred on the HIV ward of Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA. Measures similar to those subsequently recommended in the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines were implemented on the HIV ward by June, 1990, and in September, 1992, we evaluated the efficacy of these control measures.… Read more

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Respirators, recommendations, and regulations: the controversy surrounding protection of health care workers from tuberculosis

Abstract

Recent nosocomial outbreaks of tuberculosis have increased concern about the occupational acquisition of tuberculosis by health care workers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor, have issued recommendations and regulations in an effort to decrease health care workers’ risk for exposure to patients with infectious tuberculosis.… Read more

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An outbreak of gram-negative bloodstream infections in chronic hemodialysis patients

Abstract

Six chronic hemodialysis patients acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs) with Klebsiella pneumoniae of the same serotype and similar plasmid profile during an 11-day period. The 6 case-patients were more likely than noncase-patients to have received dialysis during the fourth shift (p < 0.05) and to have their dialyzers reprocessed for reuse after those of the noncase-patients (p = 0.05). Investigation identified a patient during the same shift with an arteriovenous fistula infected with K. pneumoniae. The dialyzer reprocessing technician did not change gloves between contacting patients and their dialyzers in the treatment area and reprocessing the case-patients' dialyzers at the end of the fourth shift. We conclude that the outbreak of BSIs was caused by cross-contamination of the case-patients' dialyzers with bacteria from the gloves of the reprocessing technician and by inadequate dialyzer disinfection. After revised dialyzer reprocessing techniques and glove-changing policies were instituted, no further clusters of BSIs occurred.

Welbel SF, Schoendorf K, Bland LA, Arduino MJ, Groves C, Schable B, O’Hara CM, Tenover FC, Jarvis WR

Am.… Read more

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Usefulness of molecular epidemiology for outbreak investigations

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective review of nosocomial outbreak investigations conducted by the Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from January 1991 through March 1994. Selected outbreaks have demonstrated the utility of molecular methods such as plasmid analysis, plasmid restriction endonuclease analysis, ribotyping, restriction fragment polymorphism, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction in confirming the clonality of the outbreak and in confirming the source of the outbreak implicated in the epidemiologic investigation.… Read more

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Epidemic Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: role of second- and third-generation cephalosporins

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To better define the role of multiple risk factors for cytotoxic Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

DESIGN: Case-control study.

SETTING: A Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

PATIENTS: Thirty-three case patients with C difficile-associated diarrhea. Two control groups were used: one group consisted of 32 patients from the same ward as the case patients, and one group consisted of 34 patients with nosocomial diarrhea and negative C difficile toxin assays.… Read more

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Bacterial contamination of platelets at a university hospital: increased identification due to intensified surveillance

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A cluster of bacterial contamination of platelets occurred at a university hospital in a one-month period. This unusual clustering allowed us to examine the likely mechanism of contamination and clinical sequelae.

METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients receiving random donor platelet transfusions to determine numbers of platelets transfused, reactions reported, and episodes of bacterial contamination.… Read more

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Nosocomial Malassezia pachydermatis bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit

Abstract

Malassezia pachydermatis, a lipophilic yeast, has been described to cause sporadic nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI). Nosocomial outbreaks of M. pachydermatis BSI have never been described. A cluster of M. pachydermatis BSIs in the neonatal intensive care unit at Louisiana State University Medical Center, University Hospital provided the opportunity to investigate the epidemiology of this organism and apply molecular epidemiologic typing techniques.… Read more

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Outbreak of pyrogenic reactions and gram-negative bacteremia in a hemodialysis center

Abstract

Six episodes of gram-negative bacteremia and seven pyrogenic reactions occurred in 11 patients in one hemodialysis center. Gram-negative bacteremias and/or pyrogenic reactions were not related to reuse and were more likely to occur if dialysis was performed in one unit of the center (8/13 unit 5 vs.… Read more

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Cluster of Enterobacter cloacae pseudobacteremias associated with use of an agar slant blood culturing system

Abstract

From 1 February through 12 October 1990, 27 blood cultures processed at Shiprock Hospital were positive for Enterobacter cloacae; only 3 had been reported in the preceding 12 months. Twenty (74%) of the cultures were obtained from patients without clinical evidence of gram-negative septicemia.… Read more

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Outbreak of Pseudomonas cepacia bacteremia in oncology patients

Abstract

In 1991, an outbreak of Pseudomonas cepacia bacteremia (PCB) occurred among patients at an oncology clinic in Alabama. A case-patient was defined as any patient at Alabama Oncology Hematology Associates (AOHA) who had at least one blood culture positive for P.… Read more

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Anaphylactoid reactions associated with reuse of hollow-fiber hemodialyzers and ACE inhibitors

Abstract

From July 18 through November 27, 1989, 12 anaphylactoid reactions (ARs) occurred in 10 patients at a hemodialysis center in Virginia. One patient required hospitalization; no patients died. ARs occurred within minutes of initiating dialysis and were characterized by peripheral numbness and tingling, laryngeal edema or angioedema, facial or generalized sensation of warmth, and/or nausea or vomiting.… Read more

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Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among patients and health care workers (HCWs) in a ward and clinic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in a hospital, four studies were conducted.

METHODS: Case patients and control patients were persons who had been treated in the HIV ward or clinic, whose clinical course was consistent with tuberculosis and who had at least one positive culture for M tuberculosis between January 1, 1988, and January 31, 1990, resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin (case patients), or whose isolates were susceptible to all drugs tested (control patients).… Read more

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Outbreak of surgical wound infections associated with total hip arthroplasty

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Describe an outbreak of surgical wound infections associated with total hip arthroplasty; identify risk factors for surgical wound infection during the pre-outbreak and outbreak periods.

SETTING: A 100-bed hospital. From May 1 to September 30, 1988, 7 of 15 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty developed surgical wound infections from Staphylococcus aureus (5), Enterobacter cloacae (1), beta-hemolytic streptococci (1), enterococci (1), coagulase-negative staphylococci (1), and Escherichia coli (1) (attack rate = 46.7%).… Read more

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Tuberculin skin testing of hospital employees during an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients

Abstract

Tokars JI, Jarvis WR, Edlin BR, Dooley SW, Grieco MH, Gilligan ME, Schneider N, Montonez M, Williams J

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992 Sep;13(9):509-10

PMID: 1430996… Read more

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Outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal infections in a nursing home. Lessons on prevention and control

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Nine outbreaks of group A streptococcal (GAS) infections in nursing homes were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, Ga) during the past two winters. We conducted an intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of one of these outbreaks to determine clinical characteristics, risk factors for transmission and infection, and methods of control and prevention.… Read more

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A cluster of severe postoperative bleeding following open heart surgery

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a cluster of postoperative bleeding following open heart surgery.

DESIGN: A cohort and case/control study.

SETTING: Palo Alto Veterans Administration Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.

PARTICIPANTS: Six (21.4%) of 28 patients undergoing open heart surgery who developed severe, nonsurgical, postoperative bleeding from July 1 through August 30, 1988 (outbreak period).… Read more

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Outbreak of pseudoinfection with Tsukamurella paurometabolum traced to laboratory contamination: efficacy of joint epidemiological and laboratory investigation

Abstract

From January 1988 to May 1989, one hospital in South Carolina reported 12 isolates of Tsukamurella paurometabolum from 10 patients. There were no common risk factors among the patients. Case-control studies revealed that the positive specimens were significantly more likely to have been processed in the TB/fungal room, to have been tissue samples, and to have been handled by one technician.… Read more

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Prevalence of serotypes of Xanthomonas maltophilia from world-wide sources

Abstract

Since its development in 1988, a serologic typing scheme for Xanthomonas maltophilia, based on 31 O antigens, has been successfully used to serotype isolates involved in nosocomial outbreaks in the United States. To determine if this serotyping scheme would be useful in typing X.… Read more

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Bacteriologic and endotoxin analysis of salvaged blood used in autologous transfusions during cardiac operations

Abstract

Autologous blood transfusion is a common method of reducing the need for heterologous blood transfusion during cardiac operations. Recently we investigated an outbreak of severe, nonsurgical postoperative bleeding among patients undergoing heart operations and receiving intraoperative transfusion of blood from a cell conservation device (Cell Saver System, Haemonetics Corp., Braintree, Mass.).… Read more

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Nosocomial outbreaks: the Centers for Disease Control’s Hospital Infections Program experience, 1980-1990. Epidemiology Branch, Hospital Infections Program

Abstract

From January 1980 to July 1990, the Hospital Infections Program of the Centers for Disease Control conducted 125 on-site epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial outbreaks. Seventy-seven (62%) were caused by bacterial pathogens, 11 (9%) were caused by fungi, 10 (8%) were caused by viruses, five (4%) were caused by mycobacteria, and 22 (18%) were caused by toxins or other organisms.… Read more

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Microbial growth and endotoxin production in the intravenous anesthetic propofol

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we measured microbial growth and endotoxin production in the intravenous anesthetic propofol using 10 different microbial strains; 6 isolated from outbreak cases and 4 from laboratory stock cultures.

DESIGN: In each trial, endotoxin-free glass tubes containing 10 ml propofol were inoculated with 10(0)-10(3) CFU/ml of the test organism and incubated at 30 degrees C for 72 hours.… Read more

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Hepatitis A outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for transmission and evidence of prolonged viral excretion among preterm infants

Abstract

An outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) provided the opportunity to examine the duration of HAV excretion in infants and the mechanisms by which HAV epidemics are propagated in NICUs. The outbreak affected 13 NICU infants (20%), 22 NICU nurses (24%), 8 other staff caring for NICU infants, and 4 household contacts; 2 seropositive infants (primary cases) received blood transfusions from a donor with HAV infection.… Read more

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Epidemic bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii in five intensive care units

Abstract

From March 5, 1986 to September 4, 1987, Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) was isolated from blood or vascular catheter-tip cultures of 75 patients in five intensive care units at a hospital in New Jersey. To identify risk factors for AB bacteremia in the intensive care units, a case-control study was conducted.… Read more

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Foodborne Snow Mountain agent gastroenteritis with secondary person-to-person spread in a retirement community

Abstract

A variety of small round-structured viruses are being recognized with increasing frequency as a cause of gastroenteritis in the community, but have rarely been reported to cause outbreaks in hospitals or extended-care facilities. From March 20 through April 15, 1988, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a retirement facility in the San Francisco Bay area.… Read more

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Epidemic hypotension in a dialysis center caused by sodium azide

Abstract

The water used for dialysate (dialysis fluid) in hemodialysis centers is produced by water treatment systems (WTS), which require careful and frequent monitoring. On November 3, 1988, nine patients receiving hemodialysis treatments at a single dialysis center suddenly developed hypotension within 30 minutes of onset of dialysis.… Read more

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Outbreak of gram-negative bacteremia and pyrogenic reactions in a hemodialysis center

Abstract

During the period from April 4, 1988, to April 20, 1988, nine pyrogenic reactions and five gram-negative bacteremias occurred in 11 patients undergoing dialysis. All pyrogenic reactions and gram-negative bacteremias occurred among patients in whom a reprocessed dialyzer was used.… Read more

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Epidemic of Serratia marcescens bacteremia in a cardiac intensive care unit

Abstract

From 16 July through 27 September 1988, seven cases of nosocomial Serratia marcescens bacteremia occurred in a cardiac care unit. In all seven case patients, S. marcescens was isolated from blood cultures. Two of the seven had other microorganisms identified in the blood culture in which S.… Read more

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Epidemic iatrogenic Acinetobacter spp. meningitis following administration of intrathecal methotrexate

Abstract

We report the first outbreak of Acinetobacter species meningitis in a group of children with acute leukaemia following the administration of intrathecal chemotherapy. Eight of twenty patients receiving methotrexate injections on a single day developed signs and symptoms of meningitis within 18 h of treatment, and cases were clustered by time of administration.… Read more

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Pseudomonas cepacia typing systems: collaborative study to assess their potential in epidemiologic investigations

Abstract

To determine the utility of available Pseudomonas cepacia typing systems for confirming the relatedness of isolates, we applied these methods to isolates associated with previously investigated nosocomial outbreaks. We compared chromosome analysis, serologic reactions, biochemical tests, bacteriocin production and susceptibility, and antimicrobial susceptibility in their ability to determine outbreak relatedness.… Read more

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Cluster of Malassezia furfur pulmonary infections in infants in a neonatal intensive-care unit

Abstract

Between 23 and 27 July 1987, three infants at one hospital developed severe bronchopneumonia associated with respiratory failure, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis. Two infants died; at postmortem examination, Malassezia furfur was identified in their lung tissues. M. furfur was isolated from cultures of blood, urine, and stool samples from the infant who survived.… Read more

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Epidemic bloodstream infections associated with pressure transducers: a persistent problem

Abstract

Twenty-four outbreaks of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) were investigated by the Centers for Disease Control from Jan 1, 1977 to Dec 31, 1987. Intravascular pressure monitoring devices (transducers) were the most commonly identified source of bacterial and fungal BSI outbreaks and were implicated as the source of infection in eight (33%) outbreaks.… Read more

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Mycobacterium chelonae causing otitis media in an ear-nose-and-throat practice

Abstract

Seventeen cases of otitis media caused by Mycobacterium chelonae were detected among patients seen at a single ear-nose-and-throat (ENT) office (Office A) in Louisiana between May 5 and September 15, 1987. All the patients had a tympanotomy tube or tubes in place or had one or more tympanic-membrane perforations, with chronic otorrhea that was unresponsive to standard therapy with antimicrobial agents.… Read more

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An outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis. Association with transfusions of packed red blood cells

Abstract

Of 187 newborns admitted to a 33-bed, level III neonatal intensive care unit between January 1, 1985 and June 23, 1985, 33 developed necrotizing enterocolitis during their hospital stay. Twenty of the 33 newborns (61%) had onset of symptoms between April 1 and June 23, suggesting clustering during this period.… Read more

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The Epidemiology of AIDS

Abstract

Cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported in June and July of 1981, as clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among homosexual men. Since then, epidemiologic surveillance has been used by investigators and public health professionals to identify that an outbreak existed, to characterize the outbreak, and to determine and predict its extent and course.… Read more

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The epidemiology of nosocomial epidemic Pseudomonas cepacia infections

Abstract

Pseudomonas cepacia has occasionally been identified as an epidemic and endemic nosocomial pathogen. In outbreaks, usually one clinical site predominates but many may be involved. Detailed investigations have usually implicated a contaminated liquid reservoir or moist environmental surface as the source.… Read more

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The course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States hemophilia population

Abstract

The time course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as it has occurred in the US hemophilia population is examined using surveillance data collected by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). These data indicate that the epidemic course in hemophiliacs is distinguishable from that in the homosexual/bisexual and intravenous drug-using populations in at least one respect–the epidemic in the hemophilia population is characterized by a lack of consistent increase in the number of new AIDS cases in successive time intervals.… Read more

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The Role of Parvovirus B19 in Aplastic Crisis and Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)

Abstract

In 1984, simultaneous outbreaks of aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum occurred in northeastern Ohio. Sera were analyzed from 26 patients with aplastic crisis: 24 had IgM specific for parvovirus B19, five had Bl9-like particles by electron microscopy, and 13 had DNA from B19; no sera from 33 controls had evidence of recent infection with B19 (P< .0001).… Read more

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Pseudomonas cepacia colonization in patients with cystic fibrosis: risk factors and clinical outcome

Abstract

During the period of 1979 to 1983, 38 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) at the CF center of St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children in Pennsylvania developed respiratory tract colonization with Pseudomonas cepacia. Seventeen (45%) of the patients with colonization died.… Read more

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The epidemiology of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes serious epidemic and endemic nosocomial infections. We conducted a literature review to characterize the epidemiology of epidemic K. pneumoniae outbreaks. Eighty percent of the outbreaks (20/25) involved infections of the bloodstream or urinary tract. Person-to-person spread was the most common mode of transmission, and nearly 50% of the outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units.… Read more

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Bacterial growth and endotoxin production in lipid emulsion

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae serotypes 21 and 24 and Enterobacter cloacae were responsible for an outbreak of polymicrobial bacteremia associated with the receipt of lipid emulsion. Since it is recommended that lipid emulsion be kept refrigerated between uses, we undertook a study to determine the growth characteristics of these organisms in lipid emulsion at 5 and 25 degrees C and to examine the use of alternative measurements (pH and endotoxin) to determine contamination by viable and nonviable microorganisms.… Read more