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Laboratory proficiency test results on use of selective media for isolating Pseudomonas cepacia from simulated sputum specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis

Abstract

Pseudomonas cepacia colonization of or infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been associated with increased morbidity and premature death. However, current data on national incidence may be biased because of interlaboratory differences in the methods of culturing sputa of patients with CF.… Read more

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Effects of exposure to factor concentrates containing donations from identified AIDS patients. A matched cohort study

Abstract

We compared recipients of eight lots of factors VIII and IX voluntarily withdrawn from distribution because one donor was known to have subsequently developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a nonexposed cohort matched by age, sex, and factor use. The factor VIII recipient cohorts did not differ in prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (exposed, 75%; nonexposed, 86%), T-cell subset numbers (median: exposed, 619 T-helper cells per cubic millimeter; nonexposed, 659 T-helper cells per cubic millimeter), T-helper to T-suppressor ratios, or immunoglobulin levels.… Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV-seronegative, virus-negative sexual partners and household contacts of hemophiliacs

Abstract

Public concern about¬†the transmissibility of human T-cell¬†lymphotropic virus type III/¬†lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) has been heightened by several reports suggesting the existence¬†of an antibody-negative, virus-positive¬†state in some asymptomatic sex partners of persons who are antibody-positive. ¬†We recently evaluated 88¬†household members and/or sex partners¬†of persons with hemophilia and¬†found that only two nonhemophiliacs¬†were HTLV-III/LAV antibody-positive. ¬†… Read more

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Conjugal transmission of HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy in Christmas disease

Abstract

The risk of conjugal transmission of the HTLV-III/LAV virus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome¬†(AIDS) in patients with hemophilia is unknown. ¬†To date, only a few¬† ¬†instances of proven exposure to HTLV-III have been reported among sexual or family contacts of¬† ¬†patients with hemophilia. ¬†… Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV antibody and immune status of household contacts and sexual partners of persons with hemophilia

Abstract

We evaluated the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody and immune status of 88 persons living with and/or sexual partners of 43 hemophiliacs, 12 of whom had AIDS, five of whom had AIDS-related complex (ARC), 17 of whom were clinically well but HTLV-III/LAV antibody positive, and nine of whom were well and HTLV-III/LAV antibody negative.… Read more

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Nosocomial infection surveillance, 1984

Abstract

Horan TC, White JW, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Culver DH, Munn VP, Thornsberry C, Olson DR, Hughes JM

MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 1986;35(1):17SS-29SS

PMID: 3086701… Read more

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HTLV-III exposure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Abstract

To the Editor: There have been no confirmed occupation-related cases of AIDS in health care workers in the United States. We have been following two nurses who participated in mouth-to-mouth re¬≠suscitation of a patient with the AIDS-related complex, who was positive for human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type- III/lymphade¬≠nopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), and we here report their seronegativity nine months after exposure.… Read more

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An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‚ÄĎmilk substitutes

Jason JM, McGrady GA.

In: Clinical Obstetrics РA Public Health Perspective.  B P Sachs & D Acker (eds).  PSG, Inc. Boston, MA, 1985.

ISBN 0-88416-513-2… Read more

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HTLV I/II and HTLV III seroprevalence in blood product recipients

Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been strongly implicated as the etiology of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a T-cell type non-Hodgkin‚Äôs lymphoma with leukemic manifestations in Japan, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States. The prevalence of serum antibody specific for one core antigen of HTLV-I, p24, has been found to be high in patients with ATL, and higher in relatives of these patients than in general population controls.… Read more

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Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) p24 antibody in New York City blood product recipients

Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I)

is known to be associated with certain hematologic malignancies, and a related virus, HTLV-III/LAV, might be the cause of AIDS. Some persons with AIDS have had evidence of HTLV-I infection. Unrelated to these findings, it has been suggested that HTLV-I is transmitted via blood products.… Read more

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Lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibodies and T cells in hemophiliacs treated with cryoprecipitate or concentrate

Abstract

Evidence for exposure to lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) was investigated in 48 patients with hemophilia, 15 of whom had been treated exclusively with single-donor cryoprecipitate. The prevalence of antibodies to LAV in all patients was 53% in 1983 and 63% in 1984, while in patients treated only with cryoprecipitate, the prevalence was 31% in 1983 and 40% in 1984.… Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV antibody status of spouses and household contacts assisting in home infusion of hemophilia patients

Abstract

Thirty-four adult and pediatric hemophilia A and B patients and 50 nonhemophilic members belonging to 28 families were enrolled in August 1984 in a study of human T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody status and T cell subpopulation numbers.… Read more

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Human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibody. Association with hemophiliacs’ immune status and blood component usage

Abstract

We studied the human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody status of 234 factor VIII concentrate recipients, 36 factor IX concentrate recipients, 69 long-term recipients of frozen packed red blood cells, and 47 persons not receiving routine transfusion therapy.… Read more

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HTLV-I antibody status in hemophilia patients treated with factor concentrates prepared from U.S. plasma sources and in hemophilia patients with AIDS

Abstract

Serum samples from 85 Austrian hemophilia patients treated with lyophilized factor concentrates prepared from U.S. plasma sources, 24 hemophilia patients from Georgia on a home therapy program with factor concentrates, and 10 U.S. hemophilia patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were analyzed by two different methods for the presence of antibodies to the major internal antigen of human T-cell leukemia virus I (HTLV-I) p24.… Read more

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Immune status of blood product recipients

Abstract

Persons with hemophilia are at risk of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and clinically asymptomatic hemophiliacs have shown a high incidence of AIDS-like immune abnormalities, facts leading to speculation that many hemophiliacs have been exposed to the AIDS agent through their blood products.… Read more

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The epidemiology of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes serious epidemic and endemic nosocomial infections. We conducted a literature review to characterize the epidemiology of epidemic K. pneumoniae outbreaks. Eighty percent of the outbreaks (20/25) involved infections of the bloodstream or urinary tract. Person-to-person spread was the most common mode of transmission, and nearly 50% of the outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units.… Read more

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hemophiliacs

Abstract

From mid-1977 to mid-1983 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has received reports of more than 2,100 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These cases had either biopsy-confirmed Kaposi’s sarcoma or a biopsy or culture confirmed life-threatening opportunistic infection, without an identifiable cause of immunosuppression.… Read more

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions

Abstract

Of 2157 patients with the acquired immunode¬≠ficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control by August 22, 1983, 64 (3 per cent) with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had no recognized risk factors for AIDS.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hemophiliacs

Abstract

From mid-1977 to mid-1983 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has received reports of more than 2,100 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These cases had either biopsy confirmed Kaposi’s sarcoma

or a biopsy or culture confirmed life-threatening opportunistic infection, without an identifiable cause of immunosuppression.… Read more

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Homicide as a cause of pediatric mortality in the United States

Abstract

Homicide is a major cause of pediatric mortality. National law enforcement data were analyzed to characterize and differentiate neonaticide, infanticide, filicide, and overall child homicide. Results include the following: Neonaticides often involved parents or unidentified perpetrators and occurred proportionately more in rural areas than did other types of child homicide.… Read more

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Child homicide spectrum

Abstract

Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide.… Read more

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Epidemiologic characteristics of primary homicides in the United States

Abstract

Homicide is one of the five leading causes of death for all persons 1-44 years of age. Over half of the homicides occurring in 1979 did not involve the perpetration of another crime. The authors have defined these as primary homicides and suggest that these deaths require the formulation of public health and social services prevention strategies.… Read more

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A comparison of primary and secondary homicides in the United States

Abstract

In 1979, over 20,000 people in the United States were victims of homicide, but public health agencies have not yet defined their role in its prevention. Role definition might begin with differentiating various forms of homicide, so the authors used data on all homicides reported by law enforcement agencies for 1976-1979 to determine whether homicides that did not occur during the perpetration of another crime (primary homicides) differ from those that occurred during the perpetration of another crime (secondary homicides).… Read more

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Underrecording of infant homicide in the United States

Abstract

Homicide rates for infants dropped suddenly between 1967 and 1969. The abrupt nature of this decline suggested the change was artifactual. Investigation suggests that two classification revisions instituted at this time were causes of this decline: changes in related codes set forth in the Eighth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted, and revision of the standard certificate of death in 1968.… Read more

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Fatal child abuse in Georgia: the epidemiology of severe physical child abuse

Abstract

Decisions about the occurrence of child abuse are increasingly difficult to make because concepts of what qualifies as reportable child abuse may be broadening.

We examined this question by comparing 51 fatal child abuse cases occurring in Georgia between July 1975 and December 1979 to non-fatal cases and to the Georgia population.… Read more

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Child abuse in Georgia: a method to evaluate risk factors and reporting bias

Abstract

From July 1975 through December 1979, the Georgia Department of Protective Services Central Registry recorded population-based data on confirmed, non-confirmable, and ruled-out child abuse reports. We propose that reporting biases are reflected in the differential characteristics of confirmed and ruled-out reports of child abuse.… Read more

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Epidemiologic differences between sexual and physical child abuse

Abstract

Sexual and physical child abuse are assumed to differ; however, these differences have not been well characterized epidemiologically. Furthermore, despite assumed differences, these types of abuse are often analyzed as one entity. This can have significant effects on assessment of risk and recommendations for intervention.… Read more

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Objective birth data and the prediction of child abuse

Abstract

Data from the USA suggest that many cases of abuse are not reported to child abuse agencies.¬† It is highly likely that the population characteristics associated with risk of abuse may actually represent risk of abuse coming to the attention of the authorities.… Read more