Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Prevention of invasive Cronobacter infections in young infants fed powdered infant formulas

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive Cronobacter infection is rare, devastating, and epidemiologically/microbiologically linked to powdered infant formulas (PIFs). In 2002-2004, the US Food and Drug Administration advised health care professionals to minimize PIF and powdered human milk fortifier (HMF)’s preparation, feeding, and storage times and avoid feeding them to hospitalized premature or immunocompromised neonates.… Read more

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Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in limited-resource neonatal intensive care units: findings of the INICC

Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of country socioeconomic status and hospital type on device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

METHODS: Data were collected on DA-HAIs from September 2003 to February 2010 on 13,251 patients in 30 NICUs in 15 countries.… Read more

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Incidence of pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit-acquired infections

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cumulative incidence of infections acquired in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

DESIGN: Estimation of the cumulative incidence of infections with data obtained from the Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) point-prevalence survey and observed rates from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system.… Read more

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Use of antimicrobial agents in United States neonatal and pediatric intensive care patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial use contributes to the development of emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. There are few published data on antimicrobial use in neonatal (NICU) and pediatric ICU (PICU) patients.

METHODS: Personnel at 31 Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals participated in point prevalence surveys on August 4, 1999 (summer) and February 8, 2000 (winter).… Read more

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Neonatal sepsis in Egypt associated with bacterial contamination of glucose-containing intravenous fluids

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rates of sepsis exceeding 50% in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Cairo, Egypt, were not controlled by routine antimicrobial therapy. We investigated these conditions in September 2001.

METHODS: Case series and retrospective cohort studies were conducted on 2 groups of NICU infants admitted to an academic medical center between February 12 and July 31, 2001.… Read more

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Improving influenza immunization rates among healthcare workers caring for high-risk pediatric patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess influenza vaccination rates of healthcare workers (HCWs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), and oncology units in Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) hospitals.

PARTICIPANTS: Infection control practitioners and HCWs in NICUs, PICUs, and oncology units.… Read more

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Controlling healthcare-associated infections: the role of infection control and antimicrobial use practices

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients in the United States and throughout the world. Overall rates of infection range widely depending on the pediatric population, with the highest rates being in patients in neonatal intensive care units, followed by those in pediatric intensive care units, immunocompromised patients, and those undergoing surgical procedures.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Vancomycin use in hospitalized pediatric patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To assess vancomycin utilization at children’s hospitals, to determine risk factors for vancomycin use and length of therapy, and to facilitate adapting recommendations to optimize vancomycin prescribing practices in pediatric patients.

METHODS: Two surveys were conducted at Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals.… Read more

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Clinical and immune impact of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination scarring

Abstract

The World Health Organization recommends Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence. BCG’s clinical and immune effects, not necessarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific, are unclear. BCG vaccine scarring often is used as a surrogate marker of vaccination or of effective vaccination.… Read more

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Evaluation and treatment of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis: a survey of neonatologists’ practices

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain current diagnostic and treatment practices for suspected late-onset sepsis in infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and identify areas that may benefit from clinical practice guidelines.

METHODS: During June 2000, we conducted a multicenter survey of neonatologists and infection control professionals regarding practices related to late-onset sepsis in NICUs at children’s hospitals participating in the Pediatric Prevention Network.… Read more

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Infection due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype infantis in a neonatal unit

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the investigation and control of an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Infantis in a neonatal unit in Brazil.

METHODS: A case-control study for risk factors for Salmonella Infantis systemic infection, environmental cultures, and evaluation of staffing and overcrowding and an assessment of infection control practices were performed.… Read more

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An outbreak of neonatal deaths in Brazil associated with contaminated intravenous fluids

Abstract

A nursery outbreak of fever and clinical sepsis resulted in the deaths of 36 neonates in Roraima, Brazil. To determine the cause, epidemiologic studies were performed, along with culture and endotoxin analysis of intravenous (iv) fluids. Affected neonates were more likely to have lower birth weight (2.1 vs.… Read more

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Age-related differences in cell-specific cytokine production by acutely ill Malawian patients

Abstract

Age-related changes in human cell-specific cytokine responses to acute illness have not been well examined. We therefore evaluated age-related differences in T, B and natural killer (NK) peripheral blood lymphocyte cytokine responses of 309 acutely ill hospitalized people in Malawi, Africa, < 1 month-61 years of age.… Read more

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[Incidence, microbial etiology and mortality associated with nosocomial bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit]

Abstract

Robles García MB, Orejas Rodríguez Arango G, Rey Galán C, Jarvis WR

An. Esp. Pediatr. 2002 Apr;56(4):364-6

PMID: 11927086

[Incidence, microbial etiology and mortality associated with nosocomial bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit] was last modified: April 1st, 2002 by Robles García MB, Orejas Rodríguez Arango G, Rey Galán C, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: Results from the first national point-prevalence survey

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at high risk of nosocomial infection. We conducted a national multicenter assessment of nosocomial infections in NICUs to determine the prevalence of infections, describe associated risk factors, and help focus prevention efforts.… Read more

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Nosocomial infection rates in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal and pediatric intensive care units

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on nosocomial infections (NIs) in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal or pediatric intensive care units. The Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) was established to improve characterization of NIs in pediatric patients and to develop and test interventions to decrease NI.… Read more

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A prolonged outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: did staff fingernails play a role in disease transmission?

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) and endotracheal tube (ETT) colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), determine risk factors for infection, and make preventive recommendations.

DESIGN: A 15-month cohort study followed by a case-control study with an environmental survey and molecular typing of available isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.… Read more

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Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial bloodstream infections traced to extrinsic contamination of a dextrose multidose vial

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for polymicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients during an outbreak of BSIs.

DESIGN: During an outbreak of BSIs, we conducted a retrospective cohort study, assessed NICU infection control practices and patient exposure to NICU healthcare workers (HCWs), and obtained cultures of the environment and HCW hands.… Read more

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Outbreak of Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infections in a nursery associated with contaminated aerosols and air conditioners

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter spp. are multidrug-resistant bacteria that grow well in water and cause infections with unexplained, increased summer prevalence. In August, 1996, eight infants acquired Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infection (A-BSI) while in a nursery in the Bahamas; three infants died and an investigation was initiated.… Read more

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Nonperinatal nosocomial transmission of Candida albicans in a neonatal intensive care unit: prospective study

Abstract

Nosocomial Candida albicans infections have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To determine the possible modes of acquisition of C. albicans in hospitalized neonates, we conducted a prospective study at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Ga.… Read more

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An epidemic of Malassezia pachydermatis in an intensive care nursery associated with colonization of health care workers’ pet dogs

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that are emerging as nosocomial pathogens, particularly in low-birth-weight neonates who receive lipid emulsions. When a cluster of patients with Malassezia pachydermatis infection was identified in an intensive care nursery, we initiated an investigation.… Read more

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Serratia marcescens outbreak associated with extrinsic contamination of 1% chlorxylenol soap

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for Serratia marcescens infection or colonization, and to identify the source of the pathogen and factors facilitating its persistence in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) during an outbreak.

DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study; review of NICU infection control policies, soap use, and handwashing practices among healthcare workers (HCWs); and selected environmental cultures.… Read more

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Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: epidemiologic and laboratory confirmation of a common source outbreak

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). When a cluster of C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections occurred in NICU patients in a hospital in Louisiana, it provided us with the opportunity to conduct an epidemiologic investigation and to apply newly developed molecular typing techniques.… Read more

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Nosocomial Malassezia pachydermatis bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit

Abstract

Malassezia pachydermatis, a lipophilic yeast, has been described to cause sporadic nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI). Nosocomial outbreaks of M. pachydermatis BSI have never been described. A cluster of M. pachydermatis BSIs in the neonatal intensive care unit at Louisiana State University Medical Center, University Hospital provided the opportunity to investigate the epidemiology of this organism and apply molecular epidemiologic typing techniques.… Read more

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Breast-feeding in 1991

Abstract

With increasing urbanization and greater entry of women into the workforce in both

undeveloped

 

and developed countries, it behooves physicians to remember that our encouragement of breast-feeding often conflicts with the practical imperatives faced by many young mothers. We should continue to encourage breast-feeding, but in individual instances this policy can safely be tempered with realism.… Read more

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Comparison of rates of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

To determine nosocomial infection (NI) rates among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) that are useful for interhospital comparison, we analyzed data reported in 1986-1990 from 35 hospitals that have level III NICUs and used standard National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance protocols and NI site definitions.… Read more

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Hepatitis A outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for transmission and evidence of prolonged viral excretion among preterm infants

Abstract

An outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) provided the opportunity to examine the duration of HAV excretion in infants and the mechanisms by which HAV epidemics are propagated in NICUs. The outbreak affected 13 NICU infants (20%), 22 NICU nurses (24%), 8 other staff caring for NICU infants, and 4 household contacts; 2 seropositive infants (primary cases) received blood transfusions from a donor with HAV infection.… Read more

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Abuse, neglect, and the HIV-infected child

Abstract

The effect of HIV on child abuse prevention must be considered on three different levels. The first consists of indirect effects: the extent to which this infection will be a burden on the health care, social service, and public assistance systems in this and other countries, leading to decreasing resources for child abuse prevention.   … Read more

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Pregnancies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected sex partners of hemophilic men. The Hemophilia-AIDS Collaborative Study Group

Abstract

We investigated 24 completed pregnancies of 20 healthy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive sex partners of 20 seropositive hemophilic men. One woman had recurrent herpes simplex type 2 infection; no woman was known to use illicit drugs or to have other purported cofactors for vertical HIV transmission.… Read more

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Infectious disease-related deaths of low birth weight infants, United States, 1968 to 1982

Abstract

Infant mortality rates in the United States are higher than in any other developed country. Low birth weight (LBW) is the primary determinant of infant mortality.

 

Despite city, state, and federal programs to prevent LBW, decreases in infant mortality in the 1980s appear to be largely secondary to improved survival of LBW infants rather than to a decline in the rate of LBW births.… Read more

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Cluster of Malassezia furfur pulmonary infections in infants in a neonatal intensive-care unit

Abstract

Between 23 and 27 July 1987, three infants at one hospital developed severe bronchopneumonia associated with respiratory failure, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis. Two infants died; at postmortem examination, Malassezia furfur was identified in their lung tissues. M. furfur was isolated from cultures of blood, urine, and stool samples from the infant who survived.… Read more

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CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988

Abstract

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has developed a new set of definitions for surveillance of nosocomial infections. The new definitions combine specific clinical findings with results of laboratory and other tests that include recent advances in diagnostic technology; they are formulated as algorithms.… Read more

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An outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis. Association with transfusions of packed red blood cells

Abstract

Of 187 newborns admitted to a 33-bed, level III neonatal intensive care unit between January 1, 1985 and June 23, 1985, 33 developed necrotizing enterocolitis during their hospital stay. Twenty of the 33 newborns (61%) had onset of symptoms between April 1 and June 23, suggesting clustering during this period.… Read more

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Infectious diseases: preventable causes of infant mortality

Abstract

After almost a century of improvement, the rate of decrease in US infant mortality rates began to level off during the period of 1982 to 1984. Rates actually increased in some states. Because much of the decline in infant mortality in this century can be attributed to advances in infectious disease treatment and prevention programs, we evaluated the current impact of infectious diseases on infant mortality.… Read more

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A cluster of late onset group B streptococcal infections in low birth weight premature infants: no evidence for horizontal transmission

Abstract

Weems JJ, Jarvis WR, Colman G

Pediatr Infect Dis 1986 Nov-Dec;5(6):715-7

PMID: 3540890

A cluster of late onset group B streptococcal infections in low birth weight premature infants: no evidence for horizontal transmission was last modified: November 1st, 1986 by Weems JJ, Jarvis WR, Colman G… Read more
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An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes

Jason JM, McGrady GA.

In: Clinical Obstetrics – A Public Health Perspective.  B P Sachs & D Acker (eds).  PSG, Inc. Boston, MA, 1985.

ISBN 0-88416-513-2

An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes was last modified: October 20th, 2015 by Jason JM, McGrady GA… Read more
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The epidemiology of nosocomial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes serious epidemic and endemic nosocomial infections. We conducted a literature review to characterize the epidemiology of epidemic K. pneumoniae outbreaks. Eighty percent of the outbreaks (20/25) involved infections of the bloodstream or urinary tract. Person-to-person spread was the most common mode of transmission, and nearly 50% of the outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units.… Read more

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Klebsiella pneumoniae: selected virulence factors that contribute to pathogenicity

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae infections occur in humans of all ages, however the highest risk groups appear to be infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. One or more virulence factors may contribute to pathogenicity in humans. In this article we review three factors that may mediate virulence: cell wall receptors, capsular polysaccharide, and endotoxin.… Read more

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Mortality and infectious disease associated with infant-feeding practices in developing countries

Abstract

This review examines the available studies bear­ing on the relation between infant-feeding mode and infectious illness in the populations of less­ developed countries.  In this review we will address the following key questions: (1) whether the method of infant feeding (breast v other) is associated with differences in rates of mortality, both overall and infectious, and in rates of infectious morbidity in less-developed countries; (2) whether differences exist between breast-feeding and other feeding methods in terms of infection rates for specific pathogens; and (3) whether the evidence is strong enough to suggest that any association is a causal one, ie, that the effect noted is actually caused by breast-feeding rather than other factors associated with rates of illness.  … Read more

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Changing practices in the use of benzyl alcohol-preserved solutions in neonatal intensive care units in Georgia

Abstract

Jarvis WR, Sikes RK

J Med Assoc Ga 1983 Oct;72(10):707-8

PMID: 6644194

Changing practices in the use of benzyl alcohol-preserved solutions in neonatal intensive care units in Georgia was last modified: October 1st, 1983 by Jarvis WR, Sikes RK… Read more
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Polymicrobial bacteremia associated with lipid emulsion in a neonatal intensive care unit

Abstract

Polymicrobial bacteremia developed in 5 of 20 infants in a neonatal intensive care unit during a 48-hour period; 2 infants died. Klebsiella pneumoniae serotypes 21 and 24 and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from four infants, and K. pneumoniae serotype 24 and E.… Read more

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Child abuse in Georgia: a method to evaluate risk factors and reporting bias

Abstract

From July 1975 through December 1979, the Georgia Department of Protective Services Central Registry recorded population-based data on confirmed, non-confirmable, and ruled-out child abuse reports. We propose that reporting biases are reflected in the differential characteristics of confirmed and ruled-out reports of child abuse.… Read more

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Echovirus type 7 meningitis in young children

Abstract

Clinical and virological features are presented of an epidemic of aseptic meningitis in children caused by echovirus type 7. The majority of patients were younger than 1 year of age. Symptoms varied according to age. The degree of CSF pleocytosis was inversely related to age and was significantly greater in infants 7 months of age and younger than in those older than 7 months.… Read more