Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Multicenter cohort study to assess the impact of a silver-alloy and hydrogel-coated urinary catheter on symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections

Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a silver-alloy hydrogel catheter on symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).

DESIGN: Multicenter before-after non-randomized cohort study.

SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Seven acute care hospitals ranging in size from 124 to 607 beds participated in this study.… Read more

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Community-acquired, non-occupational needlestick injuries treated in US Emergency Departments

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The escalating number of persons self-injecting medications, predominantly insulin, has generated concerns that the public is at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections from discarded needles/syringes. Communities have developed disposal guidelines but a debate continues over the need for further legislation and/or at-home safety devices.… Read more

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Reply to letter to the editor on “comparative efficacy of commercially available alcohol-based hand rubs and World Health Organization-recommended hand rubs”

Abstract

Edmonds SL, Macinga DR, Jarvis WR

Am J Infect Control 2013 May;41(5):474-5

PMID: 23622706

Reply to letter to the editor on “comparative efficacy of commercially available alcohol-based hand rubs and World Health Organization-recommended hand rubs” was last modified: October 12th, 2015 by Edmonds SL, Macinga DR, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Colonization pressure as a risk factor for colonization by multiresistant Acinetobacter spp and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intensive care unit

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with colonization by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiresistant Acinetobacter spp.

METHODS: Surveillance cultures were collected from patients admitted to the intensive care unit at admission, on the third day after admission and weekly until discharge.… Read more

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Prevention of invasive Cronobacter infections in young infants fed powdered infant formulas

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive Cronobacter infection is rare, devastating, and epidemiologically/microbiologically linked to powdered infant formulas (PIFs). In 2002-2004, the US Food and Drug Administration advised health care professionals to minimize PIF and powdered human milk fortifier (HMF)’s preparation, feeding, and storage times and avoid feeding them to hospitalized premature or immunocompromised neonates.… Read more

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Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium prospective surveillance study from January 2004 to December 2009 in 33 pediatric intensive care units of 16 countries and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated health care-associated infection rates.… Read more

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National prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in inpatients at United States health care facilities, 2010

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the most prevalent multidrug-resistant organisms causing health care-associated infections. Limited data are available about how the prevalence of MRSA has changed over the past several years and what MRSA prevention practices have been implemented since the 2006 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, MRSA survey.… Read more

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Health care-associated infection outbreak investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1946-2005

Abstract

Since 1946, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel have investigated outbreaks of infections and adverse events associated with delivery of health care. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have led onsite investigations of these outbreaks by systematically applying epidemiology, statistics, and laboratory science.… Read more

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Polycystic ovary syndrome in the United States: clinical visit rates, characteristics, and associated health care costs

Abstract

Background:  There are no national data on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal disorder of reproductive-aged women and the most frequent cause of oligoovulatory infertility.

Objective:  To assess the patient characteristics, treatment provided, and healthcare costs associated with PCOS medical visits in the United States.… Read more

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Health care-associated bloodstream infections associated with negative- or positive-pressure or displacement mechanical valve needleless connectors

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated, central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Needleless connectors (NCs) are an important component of the intravenous system. NCs initially were introduced to reduce health care worker needlestick injuries, yet some of these NCs may increase HA-BSI risk.… Read more

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Healthcare-associated infection in Italy: annual point-prevalence surveys, 2002-2004

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During the period from 2002 through 2004, a group of Italian hospitals was recruited to conduct HAI point-prevalence surveys.

DESIGN: Three point-prevalence surveys.

METHODS: A total of 9,609 patients were surveyed.… Read more

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National point prevalence of Clostridium difficile in US health care facility inpatients, 2008

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent published estimates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence have been based on small numbers of hospitals or national hospital discharge data. These data suggest that CDI incidence is increasing.

METHODS: We conducted a point prevalence survey of C difficile in inpatients at US health care facilities.… Read more

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Reprocessing and reuse of single-use medical devices used during hemodynamic procedures in Brazil: a widespread and largely overlooked problem

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several medical devices used during hemodynamic procedures, particularly angiographic diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheters, are manufactured for single use only. However, reprocessing and reuse of these devices has been reported, to determine the frequency of reuse and reprocessing of single-use medical devices used during hemodynamic procedures in Brazil and to evaluate how reprocessing is performed.… Read more

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National prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in inpatients at US health care facilities, 2006

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being endemic in virtually all US health care facilities, there are no data on the prevalence of MRSA in US health care facilities.

METHODS: We conducted a national prevalence survey of MRSA in inpatients at US health care facilities.… Read more

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Incidence of pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit-acquired infections

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cumulative incidence of infections acquired in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

DESIGN: Estimation of the cumulative incidence of infections with data obtained from the Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) point-prevalence survey and observed rates from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system.… Read more

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Use of antimicrobial agents in United States neonatal and pediatric intensive care patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial use contributes to the development of emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. There are few published data on antimicrobial use in neonatal (NICU) and pediatric ICU (PICU) patients.

METHODS: Personnel at 31 Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals participated in point prevalence surveys on August 4, 1999 (summer) and February 8, 2000 (winter).… Read more

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Improving influenza immunization rates among healthcare workers caring for high-risk pediatric patients

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess influenza vaccination rates of healthcare workers (HCWs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), and oncology units in Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) hospitals.

PARTICIPANTS: Infection control practitioners and HCWs in NICUs, PICUs, and oncology units.… Read more

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Secular trends in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile disease in the United States, 1987-2001

Abstract

We reviewed Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) data from the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital-wide surveillance components of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System hospitals during 1987-2001. ICU CDAD rates increased significantly only in hospitals with 500 beds (P… Read more

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Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in San Francisco Bay area hospitals during 1994 to 1998

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in three counties in the San Francisco Bay area.

DESIGN: Active laboratory-based surveillance for VRE from January 1995 through December 1996 and a laboratory-based and hospital-based questionnaire survey for 1993 to 1994 and 1997 to 1998.… Read more

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Benchmarking for prevention: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system experience

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality at hospitals in the United States. Surveillance of these infections identifies secular trends and provides data upon which prevention interventions can be based in order to improve patient safety. National surveillance of healthcare-associated infections was initiated in the United States in 1970.… Read more

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Prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the time of hospital admission

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among patients presenting for hospital admission and to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization.

DESIGN: Surveillance cultures were performed at the time of hospital admission to identify patients colonized with S.… Read more

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Prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an outpatient clinic population

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in an outpatient population and to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization.

DESIGN: Surveillance cultures were performed during outpatient visits to identify S. aureus colonization. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Are there regional variations in the diagnosis, surveillance, and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the way healthcare facilities (HCFs) diagnose, survey, and control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

DESIGN: Questionnaire.

SETTING: Ninety HCFs in 30 countries.

RESULTS: Evaluation of susceptibility testing methods showed that 8 laboratories (9%) used oxacillin disks with antimicrobial content different from the one recommended, 12 (13%) did not determine MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin, and 4 (4.5%) reported instances of isolation of vancomycin-resistant S.… Read more

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SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infection control programs were created three decades ago to control antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections, but there has been little evidence of control in most facilities. After long, steady increases of MRSA and VRE infections in NNIS System hospitals, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Board of Directors made reducing antibiotic-resistant infections a strategic SHEA goal in January 2000.… Read more

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Epidemiological and microbiological characterization of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, United States, 1997-2001

Abstract

Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility (SA-RVS; minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], or=4 microg/mL), including vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA; MIC, 8 microg/mL), are a new clinical and public health dilemma. Prospective surveillance and a nested case-control study of patients in the United States infected with SA-RVS was conduced from March 1999 through December 2000.… Read more

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Risk factors for Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization and infection among patients with cystic fibrosis

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for acquiring Burkholderia cepacia complex among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted with active surveillance for B cepacia complex colonization/infection among patients at 21 CF centers from April 1986 to March 1989 (study period).… Read more

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The evolving world of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection surveillance and prevention: is your system as good as you think?

Abstract

Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 May;23(5):236-8

PMID: 12026146

The evolving world of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection surveillance and prevention: is your system as good as you think? was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Jarvis WR… Read more
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A national point-prevalence survey of pediatric intensive care unit-acquired infections in the United States

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit-acquired infections, a major cause of morbidity in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients.

METHODS: Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals (n = 31) participated in a point-prevalence survey on August 4, 1999. Data collected for all PICU inpatients included demographics, infections, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes.… Read more

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Feasibility of national surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings

Abstract

This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system.

Manangan LP, Pearson ML, Tokars JI, Miller E, Jarvis WR

Emerging Infect.… Read more

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Would active surveillance cultures help control healthcare-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections?

Abstract

Farr BM, Jarvis WR

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002 Feb;23(2):65-8

PMID: 11893150

Would active surveillance cultures help control healthcare-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections? was last modified: September 28th, 2015 by Farr BM, Jarvis WR… Read more
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Nosocomial infections in a children’s hospital in Argentina: impact of a unique infection control intervention program

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of parental education and use of parents as nursing assistants on reducing nosocomial infections.

DESIGN: Prospective study.

METHODS: Active surveillance for nosocomial infections was performed on two wards. On ward A, parents were educated about infection control practices and assisted nursing staff with routine tasks, so that nursing personnel could focus their efforts on procedures with higher risk of infection.… Read more

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Evaluation of a reporting system for bacterial contamination of blood components in the United States

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The transfusion of blood components contaminated with bacteria may have serious clinical consequences, but few data are available on the incidence of these events. A national effort to assess the frequency of blood component bacterial contamination associated with transfusion reaction (the BaCon Study) was initiated to better estimate their occurrence.… Read more

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Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: Results from the first national point-prevalence survey

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at high risk of nosocomial infection. We conducted a national multicenter assessment of nosocomial infections in NICUs to determine the prevalence of infections, describe associated risk factors, and help focus prevention efforts.… Read more

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Risk factors for candidal bloodstream infections in surgical intensive care unit patients: the NEMIS prospective multicenter study. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey

Abstract

To assess risk factors for development of candidal blood stream infections (CBSIs), a prospective cohort study was performed at 6 sites that involved all patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) for 48 h over a 2-year period.… Read more

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Nosocomial infection rates in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal and pediatric intensive care units

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on nosocomial infections (NIs) in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal or pediatric intensive care units. The Pediatric Prevention Network (PPN) was established to improve characterization of NIs in pediatric patients and to develop and test interventions to decrease NI.… Read more

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Building communication networks: international network for the study and prevention of emerging antimicrobial resistance

Abstract

The global nature of antimicrobial resistance and the failure to control the emergence of resistant organisms demand the implementation of a global surveillance program involving both developed and developing countries. Because of the urgent need for infection control interventions and for rapid distribution of information about emerging organisms, we initiated the International Network for the Study and Prevention of Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance (INSPEAR).… Read more

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Emerging healthcare-associated problem pathogens in the United States

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Dramatic changes in the delivery of healthcare during the past decade have changed the definition of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare delivery changes include a reduction in the number of general hospital beds, an increase in the proportion of patients who are in intensive care units, a larger proportion of surgical procedures performed as outpatient procedures, a marked increase in patients cared for in outpatient settings, and an increase in the delivery of healthcare in the home setting.… Read more

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Status of infection surveillance and control programs in the United States, 1992-1996. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections have been recognized as a source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world for several decades. In the United States, an estimated 2.1 million nosocomial infections occur annually in acute care hospitals alone. Infection surveillance and control programs (ISCPs) play a vital role in addressing this problem, but no national studies have described the status and composition of these programs since the 1970s.… Read more

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Association between implementation of CDC recommendations and ventilator-associated pneumonia at selected US hospitals

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To assess whether selected recommendations in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Guideline for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia” were being implemented and having an impact on the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) at US hospitals, we surveyed hospitals participating in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system.… Read more

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Outbreaks of infection and/or pyrogenic reactions in dialysis patients

Abstract

These dialysis-related outbreaks demonstrate the ongoing potential for infection-related morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients. Many of these outbreaks could have been prevented by adequate water treatment, proper disinfection of water systems and dialysis machines, adherence to recommended reprocessing protocols in centers reusing dialyzers, and more stringent quality control monitoring.… Read more

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Determining the significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures at a community hospital: a role for species and strain identification

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the degree to which species identification or strain relatedness assessment of successive blood culture isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) may improve the clinical diagnosis of bloodstream infection (BSI).

SETTING: 400-bed community hospital.

DESIGN: Prospective laboratory survey during which all CNS blood culture isolates obtained between mid-August 1996 and mid-February 1997 (study period) were saved and later identified to the species level; selected isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).… Read more

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Risk factors for radial artery harvest site infection following coronary artery bypass graft surgery

Abstract

Radial arteries increasingly are used during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Although risk factors for saphenous vein harvest site infection (HSI) have been reported, rates of and risk factors for radial artery HSI are not well established. We compared rates of radial artery HSI that were detected by 2 surveillance methods, regular and heightened.… Read more

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Seasonal variation of Acinetobacter infections: 1987-1996. Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

Abstract

To determine whether nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species have increased over the past 10 years and whether infections continue to have a pronounced seasonal variation, we analyzed infections reported by hospitals in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System that performed adult and pediatric intensive care unit surveillance from 1987 through 1996.… Read more

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Reporting of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Connecticut: implementation and validation of a state-based surveillance system

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess state-based surveillance for isolation from a sterile site of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Connecticut.

DESIGN: Clinical laboratory reporting (passive surveillance) of VRE isolates to the Connecticut Department of Public Health (CDPH) was followed by state-initiated validation, laboratory proficiency testing, and review of hospital demographic characteristics.… Read more

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Infection-control measures reduce transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in an endemic setting

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are nosocomial pathogens in many U. S. hospitals.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether enhanced infection-control strategies reduce transmission of VRE in an endemic setting.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Adult oncology inpatient unit.

PATIENTS: 259 patients evaluated during use of enhanced infection-control strategies and 184 patients evaluated during use of standard infection-control practices.… Read more

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Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee

Abstract

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The “Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999” presents the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs), formerly called surgical wound infections. This two-part guideline updates and replaces previous guidelines.1,2 Part I, “Surgical Site Infection: An Overview,” describes the epidemiology, definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, and surveillance of SSIs.… Read more

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EMERGEncy ID NET: an emergency department-based emerging infections sentinel network. The EMERGEncy ID NET Study Group

Abstract

Acute infectious disease presentations among many at-risk patient groups (eg, uninsured, homeless, and recent immigrants) are frequently seen in emergency departments. Therefore EDs may be useful sentinel sites for infectious disease surveillance. This article describes the background, development, and implementation of EMERGE ncy ID NET, an interdisciplinary, multicenter, ED-based network for research of emerging infectious diseases.… Read more

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Nonperinatal nosocomial transmission of Candida albicans in a neonatal intensive care unit: prospective study

Abstract

Nosocomial Candida albicans infections have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To determine the possible modes of acquisition of C. albicans in hospitalized neonates, we conducted a prospective study at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Ga.… Read more

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Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine if an apparent increase in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) was associated with the implementation of a needleless access device.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using a derived CVC-days factor for estimating appropriate denominator data.… Read more

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Secular trends in bloodstream infection caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in New Jersey hospitals, 1991 to 1995

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria is an increasing public health problem. In 1991, New Jersey was the first state to establish statewide, hospital-based surveillance for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

METHODS: Each month, all 96 nonfederal New Jersey hospital laboratories complete a form listing the species identity and drug susceptibility results for selected antimicrobial-resistant bacteria isolated from blood cultures from hospital inpatients.… Read more