Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection before detection of antibody

Abstract

To estimate the duration and frequency of the period of HIV infection without detectable antibody, modelling techniques were applied to results of detection of HIV DNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to data from cases in published reports.  … Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Infectious disease-related deaths of low birth weight infants, United States, 1968 to 1982

Abstract

Infant mortality rates in the United States are higher than in any other developed country. Low birth weight (LBW) is the primary determinant of infant mortality.

 

Despite city, state, and federal programs to prevent LBW, decreases in infant mortality in the 1980s appear to be largely secondary to improved survival of LBW infants rather than to a decline in the rate of LBW births.… Read more

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Risk of developing AIDS in HIV-infected cohorts of hemophilic and homosexual men

Abstract

The latency period and/or incidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may differ in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus by different routes or having different “cofactors.” We compared 79 hemophilic men in Pennsylvania and 117 homosexual and bisexual men in California, all having known dates of infection and long postinfection observation periods, to examine these hypotheses.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Sex practice correlates of human immunodeficiency virus transmission and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome incidence in heterosexual partners and offspring of U.S. hemophilic men

Abstract

We assessed the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from heterosexual seropositive hemophilic men to their female sex partners through an HIV serosurvey and questionnaire study conducted during 1984-1987. Five percent of 21 female partners of asymptomatic men and 11% of 35 partners of HIV-symptomatic (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS], AIDS-related complex [ARC], peripheral generalized lymphadenopathy [PGL]) hemophilic men had been infected when first tested.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

HIV and hemophilic children’s growth

Abstract

The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) often has profound effects on growth; however, the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on asymptomatic children’s growth are unknown. Before heat inactivation/HIV donor screening of factor concentrates, many hemophilic children became infected with HIV.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Human immunodeficiency virus infection in hemophilic children

Abstract

The following groups were compared: (1) children less than 18 years old who have hemophilia-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with other children with AIDS and with adults who have hemophilia-associated AIDS and (2) asymptomatic HIV-infected hemophilic children with asymptomatic HIV-infected hemophilic adults.… Read more

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Racial differences in care of patients with hemophilia

Abstract

Hemophilia treatment centers were first established in the mid­-1970s to provide optimal and coordinated medical care to patients with the disorder. Our study suggests that blacks with hemophilia may be receiving less coordinated care and less appropriate blood­ product therapy than whites with hemophilia.… Read more

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Hemophilia-associated AIDS in the United States, 1981 to September 1987

Abstract

Between January 1, 1981 and September 4, 1987, 407 cases of hemophilia-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The number of cases diagnosed each year nearly doubled, except in 1986, when cases increased only 50 per cent.… Read more

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Potential effect of revising the CDC surveillance case definition for AIDS

Abstract

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) revised the surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in August, 1987. To determine the impact of this revision, information was extracted from the medical charts of the 630 patients receiving comprehensive medical care as of 1980 at 6 haemophilia treatment centres, and who were therefore likely to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).… Read more

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An outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis. Association with transfusions of packed red blood cells

Abstract

Of 187 newborns admitted to a 33-bed, level III neonatal intensive care unit between January 1, 1985 and June 23, 1985, 33 developed necrotizing enterocolitis during their hospital stay. Twenty of the 33 newborns (61%) had onset of symptoms between April 1 and June 23, suggesting clustering during this period.… Read more

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The Epidemiology of AIDS

Abstract

Cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported in June and July of 1981, as clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among homosexual men. Since then, epidemiologic surveillance has been used by investigators and public health professionals to identify that an outbreak existed, to characterize the outbreak, and to determine and predict its extent and course.… Read more

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Hemophiliac patient’s knowledge and educational needs concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Abstract

The Patient Knowledge Assessment Study (PKAS) was conducted among 107 male hemophilic patients, aged 15 to 67 years, at 19 hemophilia treatment centers (HTC). Participants were given a 30-item questionnaire concerning the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the groups at risk, and modes of transmission.… Read more

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Infectious diseases: preventable causes of infant mortality

Abstract

After almost a century of improvement, the rate of decrease in US infant mortality rates began to level off during the period of 1982 to 1984. Rates actually increased in some states. Because much of the decline in infant mortality in this century can be attributed to advances in infectious disease treatment and prevention programs, we evaluated the current impact of infectious diseases on infant mortality.… Read more

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The course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States hemophilia population

Abstract

The time course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as it has occurred in the US hemophilia population is examined using surveillance data collected by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). These data indicate that the epidemic course in hemophiliacs is distinguishable from that in the homosexual/bisexual and intravenous drug-using populations in at least one respect–the epidemic in the hemophilia population is characterized by a lack of consistent increase in the number of new AIDS cases in successive time intervals.… Read more

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Effects of exposure to factor concentrates containing donations from identified AIDS patients. A matched cohort study

Abstract

We compared recipients of eight lots of factors VIII and IX voluntarily withdrawn from distribution because one donor was known to have subsequently developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a nonexposed cohort matched by age, sex, and factor use. The factor VIII recipient cohorts did not differ in prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (exposed, 75%; nonexposed, 86%), T-cell subset numbers (median: exposed, 619 T-helper cells per cubic millimeter; nonexposed, 659 T-helper cells per cubic millimeter), T-helper to T-suppressor ratios, or immunoglobulin levels.… Read more

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The Role of Parvovirus B19 in Aplastic Crisis and Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)

Abstract

In 1984, simultaneous outbreaks of aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum occurred in northeastern Ohio. Sera were analyzed from 26 patients with aplastic crisis: 24 had IgM specific for parvovirus B19, five had Bl9-like particles by electron microscopy, and 13 had DNA from B19; no sera from 33 controls had evidence of recent infection with B19 (P< .0001).… Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV-seronegative, virus-negative sexual partners and household contacts of hemophiliacs

Abstract

Public concern about the transmissibility of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) has been heightened by several reports suggesting the existence of an antibody-negative, virus-positive state in some asymptomatic sex partners of persons who are antibody-positive.  We recently evaluated 88 household members and/or sex partners of persons with hemophilia and found that only two nonhemophiliacs were HTLV-III/LAV antibody-positive.  … Read more

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Conjugal transmission of HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy in Christmas disease

Abstract

The risk of conjugal transmission of the HTLV-III/LAV virus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in patients with hemophilia is unknown.  To date, only a few   instances of proven exposure to HTLV-III have been reported among sexual or family contacts of   patients with hemophilia.  … Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV antibody and immune status of household contacts and sexual partners of persons with hemophilia

Abstract

We evaluated the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody and immune status of 88 persons living with and/or sexual partners of 43 hemophiliacs, 12 of whom had AIDS, five of whom had AIDS-related complex (ARC), 17 of whom were clinically well but HTLV-III/LAV antibody positive, and nine of whom were well and HTLV-III/LAV antibody negative.… Read more

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HTLV-III exposure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Abstract

To the Editor: There have been no confirmed occupation-related cases of AIDS in health care workers in the United States. We have been following two nurses who participated in mouth-to-mouth re­suscitation of a patient with the AIDS-related complex, who was positive for human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type- III/lymphade­nopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), and we here report their seronegativity nine months after exposure.… Read more

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An historical perspective on controversy surrounding the international code of marketing of breast‑milk substitutes

Jason JM, McGrady GA.

In: Clinical Obstetrics – A Public Health Perspective.  B P Sachs & D Acker (eds).  PSG, Inc. Boston, MA, 1985.

ISBN 0-88416-513-2… Read more

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HTLV I/II and HTLV III seroprevalence in blood product recipients

Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been strongly implicated as the etiology of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a T-cell type non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with leukemic manifestations in Japan, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States. The prevalence of serum antibody specific for one core antigen of HTLV-I, p24, has been found to be high in patients with ATL, and higher in relatives of these patients than in general population controls.… Read more

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Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) p24 antibody in New York City blood product recipients

Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I)

is known to be associated with certain hematologic malignancies, and a related virus, HTLV-III/LAV, might be the cause of AIDS. Some persons with AIDS have had evidence of HTLV-I infection. Unrelated to these findings, it has been suggested that HTLV-I is transmitted via blood products.… Read more

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Pseudomonas cepacia colonization in patients with cystic fibrosis: risk factors and clinical outcome

Abstract

During the period of 1979 to 1983, 38 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) at the CF center of St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children in Pennsylvania developed respiratory tract colonization with Pseudomonas cepacia. Seventeen (45%) of the patients with colonization died.… Read more

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HTLV-III/LAV antibody status of spouses and household contacts assisting in home infusion of hemophilia patients

Abstract

Thirty-four adult and pediatric hemophilia A and B patients and 50 nonhemophilic members belonging to 28 families were enrolled in August 1984 in a study of human T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody status and T cell subpopulation numbers.… Read more

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Lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibodies and T cells in hemophiliacs treated with cryoprecipitate or concentrate

Abstract

Evidence for exposure to lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) was investigated in 48 patients with hemophilia, 15 of whom had been treated exclusively with single-donor cryoprecipitate. The prevalence of antibodies to LAV in all patients was 53% in 1983 and 63% in 1984, while in patients treated only with cryoprecipitate, the prevalence was 31% in 1983 and 40% in 1984.… Read more

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Human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibody. Association with hemophiliacs’ immune status and blood component usage

Abstract

We studied the human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) antibody status of 234 factor VIII concentrate recipients, 36 factor IX concentrate recipients, 69 long-term recipients of frozen packed red blood cells, and 47 persons not receiving routine transfusion therapy.… Read more

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HTLV-I antibody status in hemophilia patients treated with factor concentrates prepared from U.S. plasma sources and in hemophilia patients with AIDS

Abstract

Serum samples from 85 Austrian hemophilia patients treated with lyophilized factor concentrates prepared from U.S. plasma sources, 24 hemophilia patients from Georgia on a home therapy program with factor concentrates, and 10 U.S. hemophilia patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were analyzed by two different methods for the presence of antibodies to the major internal antigen of human T-cell leukemia virus I (HTLV-I) p24.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Immune status of blood product recipients

Abstract

Persons with hemophilia are at risk of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and clinically asymptomatic hemophiliacs have shown a high incidence of AIDS-like immune abnormalities, facts leading to speculation that many hemophiliacs have been exposed to the AIDS agent through their blood products.… Read more

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hemophiliacs

Abstract

From mid-1977 to mid-1983 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has received reports of more than 2,100 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These cases had either biopsy-confirmed Kaposi’s sarcoma or a biopsy or culture confirmed life-threatening opportunistic infection, without an identifiable cause of immunosuppression.… Read more

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Clinical aspects of child abuse

Jason J

In:  Current Diagnosis, 7th edition, R.B. Conn, editor.  W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, 1984.

 … Read more

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Perspective comprehension of AIDS

Evatt BL, Jason J

Proc 4th Int Symp HT 1984; p 97‑102.… Read more

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AIDS in hemophilia

Evatt BL, Chorba T, McGrady G, Jason JM.

 

Proc 4th International Symp on Hemophilia Treatment, Tokyo, Japan, 1984; p 1‑14.… Read more

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Mortality and infectious disease associated with infant-feeding practices in developing countries

Abstract

This review examines the available studies bear­ing on the relation between infant-feeding mode and infectious illness in the populations of less­ developed countries.  In this review we will address the following key questions: (1) whether the method of infant feeding (breast v other) is associated with differences in rates of mortality, both overall and infectious, and in rates of infectious morbidity in less-developed countries; (2) whether differences exist between breast-feeding and other feeding methods in terms of infection rates for specific pathogens; and (3) whether the evidence is strong enough to suggest that any association is a causal one, ie, that the effect noted is actually caused by breast-feeding rather than other factors associated with rates of illness.  … Read more

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Epidemiologic analysis of a cluster of homicides of children in Atlanta

Abstract

Between July 1, 1979, and March 15, 1981, there were 22 unsolved homicides and two unsolved disappearances of Atlanta children. Using epidemiologic methods, we attempted to identify factors that had put children at an increased risk of homicide. That all victims in this cluster were black, killed away from home, and that asphyxiation was overrepresented suggests that the cluster was discrete.… Read more

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In vitro cultivation of nonlymphoid thymic cells: morphological and immunological characterization

Abstract

Nonlymphoid thymic elements play an important role in T-lymphocyte development, especially in the development of recognition of transplantation antigens (H-2 in the mouse). Understanding this process will require the isolation and characterization of these cells. A simple technique for the culture of an enriched population of murine thymic epithelium is described.… Read more

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Distinctive immunological properties of cultured murine thymic epithelial cells

Abstract

Skin painting with chemically reactive haptens induces a hapten-specific state of hypersensitivity that is long lasting and can be transferred to unirradiated recipient mice. A similar state of hapten-specific contact sensitivity can be induced by intravenous immunization with hapten-conjugated cells.… Read more

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions

Abstract

Of 2157 patients with the acquired immunode­ficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control by August 22, 1983, 64 (3 per cent) with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had no recognized risk factors for AIDS.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in hemophiliacs

Abstract

From mid-1977 to mid-1983 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has received reports of more than 2,100 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These cases had either biopsy confirmed Kaposi’s sarcoma

or a biopsy or culture confirmed life-threatening opportunistic infection, without an identifiable cause of immunosuppression.… Read more

Illustration(s) pertain to the topic addressed in this publication, not the specific research or data presented in the publication

Centers for Disease Control and the epidemiology of violence

Abstract

Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The Center for Health Promotion and Education, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has begun to apply epidemiologic techniques to study the problems of child abuse, child homicide, homicide, and suicide.… Read more

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Homicide as a cause of pediatric mortality in the United States

Abstract

Homicide is a major cause of pediatric mortality. National law enforcement data were analyzed to characterize and differentiate neonaticide, infanticide, filicide, and overall child homicide. Results include the following: Neonaticides often involved parents or unidentified perpetrators and occurred proportionately more in rural areas than did other types of child homicide.… Read more

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Child homicide spectrum

Abstract

Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide.… Read more

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Epidemiologic characteristics of primary homicides in the United States

Abstract

Homicide is one of the five leading causes of death for all persons 1-44 years of age. Over half of the homicides occurring in 1979 did not involve the perpetration of another crime. The authors have defined these as primary homicides and suggest that these deaths require the formulation of public health and social services prevention strategies.… Read more

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A comparison of primary and secondary homicides in the United States

Abstract

In 1979, over 20,000 people in the United States were victims of homicide, but public health agencies have not yet defined their role in its prevention. Role definition might begin with differentiating various forms of homicide, so the authors used data on all homicides reported by law enforcement agencies for 1976-1979 to determine whether homicides that did not occur during the perpetration of another crime (primary homicides) differ from those that occurred during the perpetration of another crime (secondary homicides).… Read more

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Underrecording of infant homicide in the United States

Abstract

Homicide rates for infants dropped suddenly between 1967 and 1969. The abrupt nature of this decline suggested the change was artifactual. Investigation suggests that two classification revisions instituted at this time were causes of this decline: changes in related codes set forth in the Eighth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted, and revision of the standard certificate of death in 1968.… Read more

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Fatal child abuse in Georgia: the epidemiology of severe physical child abuse

Abstract

Decisions about the occurrence of child abuse are increasingly difficult to make because concepts of what qualifies as reportable child abuse may be broadening.

We examined this question by comparing 51 fatal child abuse cases occurring in Georgia between July 1975 and December 1979 to non-fatal cases and to the Georgia population.… Read more

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Sexual child abuse

Abstract

The Centers for Disease Control are currently formulating recommendations for treatment of children suspected of being sexually abused. Until this process is completed, we suggest that recommendations for adults be followed for sexually abused children.

Gonorrhea prophylaxis should be given only if the abuser is known to have a gonococcal infection. … Read more

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Child abuse in Georgia: a method to evaluate risk factors and reporting bias

Abstract

From July 1975 through December 1979, the Georgia Department of Protective Services Central Registry recorded population-based data on confirmed, non-confirmable, and ruled-out child abuse reports. We propose that reporting biases are reflected in the differential characteristics of confirmed and ruled-out reports of child abuse.… Read more

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Sexually Abused Children and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Abstract

Sexual  abuse  of  children  is  a  complex  problem that has had, until recently, received only limited recognition and discussion in the pediatric literature. The reasons for this are twofold. First, the magnitude of the problem is unrecognized. Sexual child abuse is grossly underreported, with a true incidence perhaps 10-fold higher than the reported incidence.… Read more

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Detection of a novel binding site for T cell derived antigen binding proteins on thymic epithelial cell surfaces

Abstract

The presence of helper T cells that do not recognize major histocompatibility complex encoded antigenic determinants but rather are specific for self idiotypic determinants led us to search for a mechanism by which such cells might be influenced by idiotype expressed on the surfaces of thymic epithelial cells.… Read more